Block layer statistics in /sys/block/<dev>/stat¶
This file documents the contents of the /sys/block/<dev>/stat file.
The stat file provides several statistics about the state of block device <dev>.
- Why are there multiple statistics in a single file? Doesn’t sysfs normally contain a single value per file?
- By having a single file, the kernel can guarantee that the statistics represent a consistent snapshot of the state of the device. If the statistics were exported as multiple files containing one statistic each, it would be impossible to guarantee that a set of readings represent a single point in time.
The stat file consists of a single line of text containing 17 decimal values separated by whitespace. The fields are summarized in the following table, and described in more detail below.
|read I/Os||requests||number of read I/Os processed|
|read merges||requests||number of read I/Os merged with in-queue I/O|
|read sectors||sectors||number of sectors read|
|read ticks||milliseconds||total wait time for read requests|
|write I/Os||requests||number of write I/Os processed|
|write merges||requests||number of write I/Os merged with in-queue I/O|
|write sectors||sectors||number of sectors written|
|write ticks||milliseconds||total wait time for write requests|
|in_flight||requests||number of I/Os currently in flight|
|io_ticks||milliseconds||total time this block device has been active|
|time_in_queue||milliseconds||total wait time for all requests|
|discard I/Os||requests||number of discard I/Os processed|
|discard merges||requests||number of discard I/Os merged with in-queue I/O|
|discard sectors||sectors||number of sectors discarded|
|discard ticks||milliseconds||total wait time for discard requests|
|flush I/Os||requests||number of flush I/Os processed|
|flush ticks||milliseconds||total wait time for flush requests|
read I/Os, write I/Os, discard I/0s¶
These values increment when an I/O request completes.
These values increment when an flush I/O request completes.
Block layer combines flush requests and executes at most one at a time. This counts flush requests executed by disk. Not tracked for partitions.
read merges, write merges, discard merges¶
These values increment when an I/O request is merged with an already-queued I/O request.
read sectors, write sectors, discard_sectors¶
These values count the number of sectors read from, written to, or discarded from this block device. The “sectors” in question are the standard UNIX 512-byte sectors, not any device- or filesystem-specific block size. The counters are incremented when the I/O completes.
read ticks, write ticks, discard ticks, flush ticks¶
These values count the number of milliseconds that I/O requests have waited on this block device. If there are multiple I/O requests waiting, these values will increase at a rate greater than 1000/second; for example, if 60 read requests wait for an average of 30 ms, the read_ticks field will increase by 60*30 = 1800.
This value counts the number of I/O requests that have been issued to the device driver but have not yet completed. It does not include I/O requests that are in the queue but not yet issued to the device driver.
This value counts the number of milliseconds during which the device has had I/O requests queued.
This value counts the number of milliseconds that I/O requests have waited on this block device. If there are multiple I/O requests waiting, this value will increase as the product of the number of milliseconds times the number of requests waiting (see “read ticks” above for an example).