Memory Management APIs

User Space Memory Access

access_ok(addr, size)

Checks if a user space pointer is valid

Parameters

addr
User space pointer to start of block to check
size
Size of block to check

Context

User context only. This function may sleep if pagefaults are enabled.

Description

Checks if a pointer to a block of memory in user space is valid.

Note that, depending on architecture, this function probably just checks that the pointer is in the user space range - after calling this function, memory access functions may still return -EFAULT.

Return

true (nonzero) if the memory block may be valid, false (zero) if it is definitely invalid.

get_user(x, ptr)

Get a simple variable from user space.

Parameters

x
Variable to store result.
ptr
Source address, in user space.

Context

User context only. This function may sleep if pagefaults are enabled.

Description

This macro copies a single simple variable from user space to kernel space. It supports simple types like char and int, but not larger data types like structures or arrays.

ptr must have pointer-to-simple-variable type, and the result of dereferencing ptr must be assignable to x without a cast.

Return

zero on success, or -EFAULT on error. On error, the variable x is set to zero.

__get_user(x, ptr)

Get a simple variable from user space, with less checking.

Parameters

x
Variable to store result.
ptr
Source address, in user space.

Context

User context only. This function may sleep if pagefaults are enabled.

Description

This macro copies a single simple variable from user space to kernel space. It supports simple types like char and int, but not larger data types like structures or arrays.

ptr must have pointer-to-simple-variable type, and the result of dereferencing ptr must be assignable to x without a cast.

Caller must check the pointer with access_ok() before calling this function.

Return

zero on success, or -EFAULT on error. On error, the variable x is set to zero.

put_user(x, ptr)

Write a simple value into user space.

Parameters

x
Value to copy to user space.
ptr
Destination address, in user space.

Context

User context only. This function may sleep if pagefaults are enabled.

Description

This macro copies a single simple value from kernel space to user space. It supports simple types like char and int, but not larger data types like structures or arrays.

ptr must have pointer-to-simple-variable type, and x must be assignable to the result of dereferencing ptr.

Return

zero on success, or -EFAULT on error.

__put_user(x, ptr)

Write a simple value into user space, with less checking.

Parameters

x
Value to copy to user space.
ptr
Destination address, in user space.

Context

User context only. This function may sleep if pagefaults are enabled.

Description

This macro copies a single simple value from kernel space to user space. It supports simple types like char and int, but not larger data types like structures or arrays.

ptr must have pointer-to-simple-variable type, and x must be assignable to the result of dereferencing ptr.

Caller must check the pointer with access_ok() before calling this function.

Return

zero on success, or -EFAULT on error.

unsigned long clear_user(void __user *to, unsigned long n)

Zero a block of memory in user space.

Parameters

void __user *to
Destination address, in user space.
unsigned long n
Number of bytes to zero.

Description

Zero a block of memory in user space.

Return

number of bytes that could not be cleared. On success, this will be zero.

unsigned long __clear_user(void __user *to, unsigned long n)

Zero a block of memory in user space, with less checking.

Parameters

void __user *to
Destination address, in user space.
unsigned long n
Number of bytes to zero.

Description

Zero a block of memory in user space. Caller must check the specified block with access_ok() before calling this function.

Return

number of bytes that could not be cleared. On success, this will be zero.

int get_user_pages_fast(unsigned long start, int nr_pages, unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages)

pin user pages in memory

Parameters

unsigned long start
starting user address
int nr_pages
number of pages from start to pin
unsigned int gup_flags
flags modifying pin behaviour
struct page **pages
array that receives pointers to the pages pinned. Should be at least nr_pages long.

Description

Attempt to pin user pages in memory without taking mm->mmap_lock. If not successful, it will fall back to taking the lock and calling get_user_pages().

Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages were pinned, returns -errno.

Memory Allocation Controls

bool gfpflags_normal_context(const gfp_t gfp_flags)

is gfp_flags a normal sleepable context?

Parameters

const gfp_t gfp_flags
gfp_flags to test

Description

Test whether gfp_flags indicates that the allocation is from the current context and allowed to sleep.

An allocation being allowed to block doesn’t mean it owns the current context. When direct reclaim path tries to allocate memory, the allocation context is nested inside whatever current was doing at the time of the original allocation. The nested allocation may be allowed to block but modifying anything current owns can corrupt the outer context’s expectations.

true result from this function indicates that the allocation context can sleep and use anything that’s associated with current.

Page mobility and placement hints

These flags provide hints about how mobile the page is. Pages with similar mobility are placed within the same pageblocks to minimise problems due to external fragmentation.

__GFP_MOVABLE (also a zone modifier) indicates that the page can be moved by page migration during memory compaction or can be reclaimed.

__GFP_RECLAIMABLE is used for slab allocations that specify SLAB_RECLAIM_ACCOUNT and whose pages can be freed via shrinkers.

__GFP_WRITE indicates the caller intends to dirty the page. Where possible, these pages will be spread between local zones to avoid all the dirty pages being in one zone (fair zone allocation policy).

__GFP_HARDWALL enforces the cpuset memory allocation policy.

__GFP_THISNODE forces the allocation to be satisfied from the requested node with no fallbacks or placement policy enforcements.

__GFP_ACCOUNT causes the allocation to be accounted to kmemcg.

Watermark modifiers – controls access to emergency reserves

__GFP_HIGH indicates that the caller is high-priority and that granting the request is necessary before the system can make forward progress. For example, creating an IO context to clean pages.

__GFP_ATOMIC indicates that the caller cannot reclaim or sleep and is high priority. Users are typically interrupt handlers. This may be used in conjunction with __GFP_HIGH

__GFP_MEMALLOC allows access to all memory. This should only be used when the caller guarantees the allocation will allow more memory to be freed very shortly e.g. process exiting or swapping. Users either should be the MM or co-ordinating closely with the VM (e.g. swap over NFS). Users of this flag have to be extremely careful to not deplete the reserve completely and implement a throttling mechanism which controls the consumption of the reserve based on the amount of freed memory. Usage of a pre-allocated pool (e.g. mempool) should be always considered before using this flag.

__GFP_NOMEMALLOC is used to explicitly forbid access to emergency reserves. This takes precedence over the __GFP_MEMALLOC flag if both are set.

Reclaim modifiers

Please note that all the following flags are only applicable to sleepable allocations (e.g. GFP_NOWAIT and GFP_ATOMIC will ignore them).

__GFP_IO can start physical IO.

__GFP_FS can call down to the low-level FS. Clearing the flag avoids the allocator recursing into the filesystem which might already be holding locks.

__GFP_DIRECT_RECLAIM indicates that the caller may enter direct reclaim. This flag can be cleared to avoid unnecessary delays when a fallback option is available.

__GFP_KSWAPD_RECLAIM indicates that the caller wants to wake kswapd when the low watermark is reached and have it reclaim pages until the high watermark is reached. A caller may wish to clear this flag when fallback options are available and the reclaim is likely to disrupt the system. The canonical example is THP allocation where a fallback is cheap but reclaim/compaction may cause indirect stalls.

__GFP_RECLAIM is shorthand to allow/forbid both direct and kswapd reclaim.

The default allocator behavior depends on the request size. We have a concept of so called costly allocations (with order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER). !costly allocations are too essential to fail so they are implicitly non-failing by default (with some exceptions like OOM victims might fail so the caller still has to check for failures) while costly requests try to be not disruptive and back off even without invoking the OOM killer. The following three modifiers might be used to override some of these implicit rules

__GFP_NORETRY: The VM implementation will try only very lightweight memory direct reclaim to get some memory under memory pressure (thus it can sleep). It will avoid disruptive actions like OOM killer. The caller must handle the failure which is quite likely to happen under heavy memory pressure. The flag is suitable when failure can easily be handled at small cost, such as reduced throughput

__GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL: The VM implementation will retry memory reclaim procedures that have previously failed if there is some indication that progress has been made else where. It can wait for other tasks to attempt high level approaches to freeing memory such as compaction (which removes fragmentation) and page-out. There is still a definite limit to the number of retries, but it is a larger limit than with __GFP_NORETRY. Allocations with this flag may fail, but only when there is genuinely little unused memory. While these allocations do not directly trigger the OOM killer, their failure indicates that the system is likely to need to use the OOM killer soon. The caller must handle failure, but can reasonably do so by failing a higher-level request, or completing it only in a much less efficient manner. If the allocation does fail, and the caller is in a position to free some non-essential memory, doing so could benefit the system as a whole.

__GFP_NOFAIL: The VM implementation _must_ retry infinitely: the caller cannot handle allocation failures. The allocation could block indefinitely but will never return with failure. Testing for failure is pointless. New users should be evaluated carefully (and the flag should be used only when there is no reasonable failure policy) but it is definitely preferable to use the flag rather than opencode endless loop around allocator. Using this flag for costly allocations is _highly_ discouraged.

Useful GFP flag combinations

Useful GFP flag combinations that are commonly used. It is recommended that subsystems start with one of these combinations and then set/clear __GFP_FOO flags as necessary.

GFP_ATOMIC users can not sleep and need the allocation to succeed. A lower watermark is applied to allow access to “atomic reserves”. The current implementation doesn’t support NMI and few other strict non-preemptive contexts (e.g. raw_spin_lock). The same applies to GFP_NOWAIT.

GFP_KERNEL is typical for kernel-internal allocations. The caller requires ZONE_NORMAL or a lower zone for direct access but can direct reclaim.

GFP_KERNEL_ACCOUNT is the same as GFP_KERNEL, except the allocation is accounted to kmemcg.

GFP_NOWAIT is for kernel allocations that should not stall for direct reclaim, start physical IO or use any filesystem callback.

GFP_NOIO will use direct reclaim to discard clean pages or slab pages that do not require the starting of any physical IO. Please try to avoid using this flag directly and instead use memalloc_noio_{save,restore} to mark the whole scope which cannot perform any IO with a short explanation why. All allocation requests will inherit GFP_NOIO implicitly.

GFP_NOFS will use direct reclaim but will not use any filesystem interfaces. Please try to avoid using this flag directly and instead use memalloc_nofs_{save,restore} to mark the whole scope which cannot/shouldn’t recurse into the FS layer with a short explanation why. All allocation requests will inherit GFP_NOFS implicitly.

GFP_USER is for userspace allocations that also need to be directly accessibly by the kernel or hardware. It is typically used by hardware for buffers that are mapped to userspace (e.g. graphics) that hardware still must DMA to. cpuset limits are enforced for these allocations.

GFP_DMA exists for historical reasons and should be avoided where possible. The flags indicates that the caller requires that the lowest zone be used (ZONE_DMA or 16M on x86-64). Ideally, this would be removed but it would require careful auditing as some users really require it and others use the flag to avoid lowmem reserves in ZONE_DMA and treat the lowest zone as a type of emergency reserve.

GFP_DMA32 is similar to GFP_DMA except that the caller requires a 32-bit address. Note that kmalloc(…, GFP_DMA32) does not return DMA32 memory because the DMA32 kmalloc cache array is not implemented. (Reason: there is no such user in kernel).

GFP_HIGHUSER is for userspace allocations that may be mapped to userspace, do not need to be directly accessible by the kernel but that cannot move once in use. An example may be a hardware allocation that maps data directly into userspace but has no addressing limitations.

GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE is for userspace allocations that the kernel does not need direct access to but can use kmap() when access is required. They are expected to be movable via page reclaim or page migration. Typically, pages on the LRU would also be allocated with GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE.

GFP_TRANSHUGE and GFP_TRANSHUGE_LIGHT are used for THP allocations. They are compound allocations that will generally fail quickly if memory is not available and will not wake kswapd/kcompactd on failure. The _LIGHT version does not attempt reclaim/compaction at all and is by default used in page fault path, while the non-light is used by khugepaged.

The Slab Cache

void * kmalloc(size_t size, gfp_t flags)

allocate memory

Parameters

size_t size
how many bytes of memory are required.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate.

Description

kmalloc is the normal method of allocating memory for objects smaller than page size in the kernel.

The allocated object address is aligned to at least ARCH_KMALLOC_MINALIGN bytes. For size of power of two bytes, the alignment is also guaranteed to be at least to the size.

The flags argument may be one of the GFP flags defined at include/linux/gfp.h and described at Documentation/core-api/mm-api.rst

The recommended usage of the flags is described at Documentation/core-api/memory-allocation.rst

Below is a brief outline of the most useful GFP flags

GFP_KERNEL
Allocate normal kernel ram. May sleep.
GFP_NOWAIT
Allocation will not sleep.
GFP_ATOMIC
Allocation will not sleep. May use emergency pools.
GFP_HIGHUSER
Allocate memory from high memory on behalf of user.

Also it is possible to set different flags by OR’ing in one or more of the following additional flags:

__GFP_HIGH
This allocation has high priority and may use emergency pools.
__GFP_NOFAIL
Indicate that this allocation is in no way allowed to fail (think twice before using).
__GFP_NORETRY
If memory is not immediately available, then give up at once.
__GFP_NOWARN
If allocation fails, don’t issue any warnings.
__GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL
Try really hard to succeed the allocation but fail eventually.
void * kmalloc_array(size_t n, size_t size, gfp_t flags)

allocate memory for an array.

Parameters

size_t n
number of elements.
size_t size
element size.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate (see kmalloc).
void * krealloc_array(void *p, size_t new_n, size_t new_size, gfp_t flags)

reallocate memory for an array.

Parameters

void *p
pointer to the memory chunk to reallocate
size_t new_n
new number of elements to alloc
size_t new_size
new size of a single member of the array
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate (see kmalloc)
void * kcalloc(size_t n, size_t size, gfp_t flags)

allocate memory for an array. The memory is set to zero.

Parameters

size_t n
number of elements.
size_t size
element size.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate (see kmalloc).
void * kzalloc(size_t size, gfp_t flags)

allocate memory. The memory is set to zero.

Parameters

size_t size
how many bytes of memory are required.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate (see kmalloc).
void * kzalloc_node(size_t size, gfp_t flags, int node)

allocate zeroed memory from a particular memory node.

Parameters

size_t size
how many bytes of memory are required.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate (see kmalloc).
int node
memory node from which to allocate
void * kmem_cache_alloc(struct kmem_cache *cachep, gfp_t flags)

Allocate an object

Parameters

struct kmem_cache *cachep
The cache to allocate from.
gfp_t flags
See kmalloc().

Description

Allocate an object from this cache. The flags are only relevant if the cache has no available objects.

Return

pointer to the new object or NULL in case of error

void * kmem_cache_alloc_node(struct kmem_cache *cachep, gfp_t flags, int nodeid)

Allocate an object on the specified node

Parameters

struct kmem_cache *cachep
The cache to allocate from.
gfp_t flags
See kmalloc().
int nodeid
node number of the target node.

Description

Identical to kmem_cache_alloc but it will allocate memory on the given node, which can improve the performance for cpu bound structures.

Fallback to other node is possible if __GFP_THISNODE is not set.

Return

pointer to the new object or NULL in case of error

void kmem_cache_free(struct kmem_cache *cachep, void *objp)

Deallocate an object

Parameters

struct kmem_cache *cachep
The cache the allocation was from.
void *objp
The previously allocated object.

Description

Free an object which was previously allocated from this cache.

void kfree(const void *objp)

free previously allocated memory

Parameters

const void *objp
pointer returned by kmalloc.

Description

If objp is NULL, no operation is performed.

Don’t free memory not originally allocated by kmalloc() or you will run into trouble.

size_t __ksize(const void *objp)
  • Uninstrumented ksize.

Parameters

const void *objp
pointer to the object

Description

Unlike ksize(), __ksize() is uninstrumented, and does not provide the same safety checks as ksize() with KASAN instrumentation enabled.

Return

size of the actual memory used by objp in bytes

struct kmem_cache * kmem_cache_create_usercopy(const char *name, unsigned int size, unsigned int align, slab_flags_t flags, unsigned int useroffset, unsigned int usersize, void (*ctor)(void *))

Create a cache with a region suitable for copying to userspace

Parameters

const char *name
A string which is used in /proc/slabinfo to identify this cache.
unsigned int size
The size of objects to be created in this cache.
unsigned int align
The required alignment for the objects.
slab_flags_t flags
SLAB flags
unsigned int useroffset
Usercopy region offset
unsigned int usersize
Usercopy region size
void (*ctor)(void *)
A constructor for the objects.

Description

Cannot be called within a interrupt, but can be interrupted. The ctor is run when new pages are allocated by the cache.

The flags are

SLAB_POISON - Poison the slab with a known test pattern (a5a5a5a5) to catch references to uninitialised memory.

SLAB_RED_ZONE - Insert Red zones around the allocated memory to check for buffer overruns.

SLAB_HWCACHE_ALIGN - Align the objects in this cache to a hardware cacheline. This can be beneficial if you’re counting cycles as closely as davem.

Return

a pointer to the cache on success, NULL on failure.

struct kmem_cache * kmem_cache_create(const char *name, unsigned int size, unsigned int align, slab_flags_t flags, void (*ctor)(void *))

Create a cache.

Parameters

const char *name
A string which is used in /proc/slabinfo to identify this cache.
unsigned int size
The size of objects to be created in this cache.
unsigned int align
The required alignment for the objects.
slab_flags_t flags
SLAB flags
void (*ctor)(void *)
A constructor for the objects.

Description

Cannot be called within a interrupt, but can be interrupted. The ctor is run when new pages are allocated by the cache.

The flags are

SLAB_POISON - Poison the slab with a known test pattern (a5a5a5a5) to catch references to uninitialised memory.

SLAB_RED_ZONE - Insert Red zones around the allocated memory to check for buffer overruns.

SLAB_HWCACHE_ALIGN - Align the objects in this cache to a hardware cacheline. This can be beneficial if you’re counting cycles as closely as davem.

Return

a pointer to the cache on success, NULL on failure.

int kmem_cache_shrink(struct kmem_cache *cachep)

Shrink a cache.

Parameters

struct kmem_cache *cachep
The cache to shrink.

Description

Releases as many slabs as possible for a cache. To help debugging, a zero exit status indicates all slabs were released.

Return

0 if all slabs were released, non-zero otherwise

bool kmem_valid_obj(void *object)

does the pointer reference a valid slab object?

Parameters

void *object
pointer to query.

Return

true if the pointer is to a not-yet-freed object from kmalloc() or kmem_cache_alloc(), either true or false if the pointer is to an already-freed object, and false otherwise.

void kmem_dump_obj(void *object)

Print available slab provenance information

Parameters

void *object
slab object for which to find provenance information.

Description

This function uses pr_cont(), so that the caller is expected to have printed out whatever preamble is appropriate. The provenance information depends on the type of object and on how much debugging is enabled. For a slab-cache object, the fact that it is a slab object is printed, and, if available, the slab name, return address, and stack trace from the allocation and last free path of that object.

This function will splat if passed a pointer to a non-slab object. If you are not sure what type of object you have, you should instead use mem_dump_obj().

void * krealloc(const void *p, size_t new_size, gfp_t flags)

reallocate memory. The contents will remain unchanged.

Parameters

const void *p
object to reallocate memory for.
size_t new_size
how many bytes of memory are required.
gfp_t flags
the type of memory to allocate.

Description

The contents of the object pointed to are preserved up to the lesser of the new and old sizes (__GFP_ZERO flag is effectively ignored). If p is NULL, krealloc() behaves exactly like kmalloc(). If new_size is 0 and p is not a NULL pointer, the object pointed to is freed.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL in case of error

void kfree_sensitive(const void *p)

Clear sensitive information in memory before freeing

Parameters

const void *p
object to free memory of

Description

The memory of the object p points to is zeroed before freed. If p is NULL, kfree_sensitive() does nothing.

Note

this function zeroes the whole allocated buffer which can be a good deal bigger than the requested buffer size passed to kmalloc(). So be careful when using this function in performance sensitive code.

size_t ksize(const void *objp)

get the actual amount of memory allocated for a given object

Parameters

const void *objp
Pointer to the object

Description

kmalloc may internally round up allocations and return more memory than requested. ksize() can be used to determine the actual amount of memory allocated. The caller may use this additional memory, even though a smaller amount of memory was initially specified with the kmalloc call. The caller must guarantee that objp points to a valid object previously allocated with either kmalloc() or kmem_cache_alloc(). The object must not be freed during the duration of the call.

Return

size of the actual memory used by objp in bytes

void kfree_const(const void *x)

conditionally free memory

Parameters

const void *x
pointer to the memory

Description

Function calls kfree only if x is not in .rodata section.

void * kvmalloc_node(size_t size, gfp_t flags, int node)

attempt to allocate physically contiguous memory, but upon failure, fall back to non-contiguous (vmalloc) allocation.

Parameters

size_t size
size of the request.
gfp_t flags
gfp mask for the allocation - must be compatible (superset) with GFP_KERNEL.
int node
numa node to allocate from

Description

Uses kmalloc to get the memory but if the allocation fails then falls back to the vmalloc allocator. Use kvfree for freeing the memory.

GFP_NOWAIT and GFP_ATOMIC are not supported, neither is the __GFP_NORETRY modifier. __GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL is supported, and it should be used only if kmalloc is preferable to the vmalloc fallback, due to visible performance drawbacks.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory of NULL in case of failure

void kvfree(const void *addr)

Free memory.

Parameters

const void *addr
Pointer to allocated memory.

Description

kvfree frees memory allocated by any of vmalloc(), kmalloc() or kvmalloc(). It is slightly more efficient to use kfree() or vfree() if you are certain that you know which one to use.

Context

Either preemptible task context or not-NMI interrupt.

Virtually Contiguous Mappings

void vm_unmap_aliases(void)

unmap outstanding lazy aliases in the vmap layer

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

The vmap/vmalloc layer lazily flushes kernel virtual mappings primarily to amortize TLB flushing overheads. What this means is that any page you have now, may, in a former life, have been mapped into kernel virtual address by the vmap layer and so there might be some CPUs with TLB entries still referencing that page (additional to the regular 1:1 kernel mapping).

vm_unmap_aliases flushes all such lazy mappings. After it returns, we can be sure that none of the pages we have control over will have any aliases from the vmap layer.

void vm_unmap_ram(const void *mem, unsigned int count)

unmap linear kernel address space set up by vm_map_ram

Parameters

const void *mem
the pointer returned by vm_map_ram
unsigned int count
the count passed to that vm_map_ram call (cannot unmap partial)
void * vm_map_ram(struct page **pages, unsigned int count, int node)

map pages linearly into kernel virtual address (vmalloc space)

Parameters

struct page **pages
an array of pointers to the pages to be mapped
unsigned int count
number of pages
int node
prefer to allocate data structures on this node

Description

If you use this function for less than VMAP_MAX_ALLOC pages, it could be faster than vmap so it’s good. But if you mix long-life and short-life objects with vm_map_ram(), it could consume lots of address space through fragmentation (especially on a 32bit machine). You could see failures in the end. Please use this function for short-lived objects.

Return

a pointer to the address that has been mapped, or NULL on failure

void vfree(const void *addr)

Release memory allocated by vmalloc()

Parameters

const void *addr
Memory base address

Description

Free the virtually continuous memory area starting at addr, as obtained from one of the vmalloc() family of APIs. This will usually also free the physical memory underlying the virtual allocation, but that memory is reference counted, so it will not be freed until the last user goes away.

If addr is NULL, no operation is performed.

Context

May sleep if called not from interrupt context. Must not be called in NMI context (strictly speaking, it could be if we have CONFIG_ARCH_HAVE_NMI_SAFE_CMPXCHG, but making the calling conventions for vfree() arch-dependent would be a really bad idea).

void vunmap(const void *addr)

release virtual mapping obtained by vmap()

Parameters

const void *addr
memory base address

Description

Free the virtually contiguous memory area starting at addr, which was created from the page array passed to vmap().

Must not be called in interrupt context.

void * vmap(struct page **pages, unsigned int count, unsigned long flags, pgprot_t prot)

map an array of pages into virtually contiguous space

Parameters

struct page **pages
array of page pointers
unsigned int count
number of pages to map
unsigned long flags
vm_area->flags
pgprot_t prot
page protection for the mapping

Description

Maps count pages from pages into contiguous kernel virtual space. If flags contains VM_MAP_PUT_PAGES the ownership of the pages array itself (which must be kmalloc or vmalloc memory) and one reference per pages in it are transferred from the caller to vmap(), and will be freed / dropped when vfree() is called on the return value.

Return

the address of the area or NULL on failure

void * vmap_pfn(unsigned long *pfns, unsigned int count, pgprot_t prot)

map an array of PFNs into virtually contiguous space

Parameters

unsigned long *pfns
array of PFNs
unsigned int count
number of pages to map
pgprot_t prot
page protection for the mapping

Description

Maps count PFNs from pfns into contiguous kernel virtual space and returns the start address of the mapping.

void * __vmalloc_node(unsigned long size, unsigned long align, gfp_t gfp_mask, int node, const void *caller)

allocate virtually contiguous memory

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size
unsigned long align
desired alignment
gfp_t gfp_mask
flags for the page level allocator
int node
node to use for allocation or NUMA_NO_NODE
const void *caller
caller’s return address

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator with gfp_mask flags. Map them into contiguous kernel virtual space.

Reclaim modifiers in gfp_mask - __GFP_NORETRY, __GFP_RETRY_MAYFAIL and __GFP_NOFAIL are not supported

Any use of gfp flags outside of GFP_KERNEL should be consulted with mm people.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc(unsigned long size)

allocate virtually contiguous memory

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space.

For tight control over page level allocator and protection flags use __vmalloc() instead.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc_huge(unsigned long size, gfp_t gfp_mask)

allocate virtually contiguous memory, allow huge pages

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size
gfp_t gfp_mask
flags for the page level allocator

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space. If size is greater than or equal to PMD_SIZE, allow using huge pages for the memory

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vzalloc(unsigned long size)

allocate virtually contiguous memory with zero fill

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space. The memory allocated is set to zero.

For tight control over page level allocator and protection flags use __vmalloc() instead.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc_user(unsigned long size)

allocate zeroed virtually contiguous memory for userspace

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size

Description

The resulting memory area is zeroed so it can be mapped to userspace without leaking data.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc_node(unsigned long size, int node)

allocate memory on a specific node

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size
int node
numa node

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space.

For tight control over page level allocator and protection flags use __vmalloc() instead.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vzalloc_node(unsigned long size, int node)

allocate memory on a specific node with zero fill

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size
int node
numa node

Description

Allocate enough pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space. The memory allocated is set to zero.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc_32(unsigned long size)

allocate virtually contiguous memory (32bit addressable)

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size

Description

Allocate enough 32bit PA addressable pages to cover size from the page level allocator and map them into contiguous kernel virtual space.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

void * vmalloc_32_user(unsigned long size)

allocate zeroed virtually contiguous 32bit memory

Parameters

unsigned long size
allocation size

Description

The resulting memory area is 32bit addressable and zeroed so it can be mapped to userspace without leaking data.

Return

pointer to the allocated memory or NULL on error

int remap_vmalloc_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma, void *addr, unsigned long pgoff)

map vmalloc pages to userspace

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
vma to cover (map full range of vma)
void *addr
vmalloc memory
unsigned long pgoff
number of pages into addr before first page to map

Return

0 for success, -Exxx on failure

Description

This function checks that addr is a valid vmalloc’ed area, and that it is big enough to cover the vma. Will return failure if that criteria isn’t met.

Similar to remap_pfn_range() (see mm/memory.c)

File Mapping and Page Cache

Filemap

int filemap_fdatawrite_wbc(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc)

start writeback on mapping dirty pages in range

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to write
struct writeback_control *wbc
the writeback_control controlling the writeout

Description

Call writepages on the mapping using the provided wbc to control the writeout.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

int filemap_flush(struct address_space *mapping)

mostly a non-blocking flush

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
target address_space

Description

This is a mostly non-blocking flush. Not suitable for data-integrity purposes - I/O may not be started against all dirty pages.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

bool filemap_range_has_page(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)

check if a page exists in range.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space within which to check
loff_t start_byte
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t end_byte
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Find at least one page in the range supplied, usually used to check if direct writing in this range will trigger a writeback.

Return

true if at least one page exists in the specified range, false otherwise.

int filemap_fdatawait_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)

wait for writeback to complete

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to wait for
loff_t start_byte
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t end_byte
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space in the given range and wait for all of them. Check error status of the address space and return it.

Since the error status of the address space is cleared by this function, callers are responsible for checking the return value and handling and/or reporting the error.

Return

error status of the address space.

int filemap_fdatawait_range_keep_errors(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)

wait for writeback to complete

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to wait for
loff_t start_byte
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t end_byte
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space in the given range and wait for all of them. Unlike filemap_fdatawait_range(), this function does not clear error status of the address space.

Use this function if callers don’t handle errors themselves. Expected call sites are system-wide / filesystem-wide data flushers: e.g. sync(2), fsfreeze(8)

int file_fdatawait_range(struct file *file, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)

wait for writeback to complete

Parameters

struct file *file
file pointing to address space structure to wait for
loff_t start_byte
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t end_byte
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the address space that file refers to, in the given range and wait for all of them. Check error status of the address space vs. the file->f_wb_err cursor and return it.

Since the error status of the file is advanced by this function, callers are responsible for checking the return value and handling and/or reporting the error.

Return

error status of the address space vs. the file->f_wb_err cursor.

int filemap_fdatawait_keep_errors(struct address_space *mapping)

wait for writeback without clearing errors

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to wait for

Description

Walk the list of under-writeback pages of the given address space and wait for all of them. Unlike filemap_fdatawait(), this function does not clear error status of the address space.

Use this function if callers don’t handle errors themselves. Expected call sites are system-wide / filesystem-wide data flushers: e.g. sync(2), fsfreeze(8)

Return

error status of the address space.

int filemap_write_and_wait_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)

write out & wait on a file range

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space for the pages
loff_t lstart
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t lend
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Write out and wait upon file offsets lstart->lend, inclusive.

Note that lend is inclusive (describes the last byte to be written) so that this function can be used to write to the very end-of-file (end = -1).

Return

error status of the address space.

int file_check_and_advance_wb_err(struct file *file)

report wb error (if any) that was previously and advance wb_err to current one

Parameters

struct file *file
struct file on which the error is being reported

Description

When userland calls fsync (or something like nfsd does the equivalent), we want to report any writeback errors that occurred since the last fsync (or since the file was opened if there haven’t been any).

Grab the wb_err from the mapping. If it matches what we have in the file, then just quickly return 0. The file is all caught up.

If it doesn’t match, then take the mapping value, set the “seen” flag in it and try to swap it into place. If it works, or another task beat us to it with the new value, then update the f_wb_err and return the error portion. The error at this point must be reported via proper channels (a’la fsync, or NFS COMMIT operation, etc.).

While we handle mapping->wb_err with atomic operations, the f_wb_err value is protected by the f_lock since we must ensure that it reflects the latest value swapped in for this file descriptor.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

int file_write_and_wait_range(struct file *file, loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)

write out & wait on a file range

Parameters

struct file *file
file pointing to address_space with pages
loff_t lstart
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t lend
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Write out and wait upon file offsets lstart->lend, inclusive.

Note that lend is inclusive (describes the last byte to be written) so that this function can be used to write to the very end-of-file (end = -1).

After writing out and waiting on the data, we check and advance the f_wb_err cursor to the latest value, and return any errors detected there.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

void replace_page_cache_page(struct page *old, struct page *new)

replace a pagecache page with a new one

Parameters

struct page *old
page to be replaced
struct page *new
page to replace with

Description

This function replaces a page in the pagecache with a new one. On success it acquires the pagecache reference for the new page and drops it for the old page. Both the old and new pages must be locked. This function does not add the new page to the LRU, the caller must do that.

The remove + add is atomic. This function cannot fail.

void folio_add_wait_queue(struct folio *folio, wait_queue_entry_t *waiter)

Add an arbitrary waiter to a folio’s wait queue

Parameters

struct folio *folio
Folio defining the wait queue of interest
wait_queue_entry_t *waiter
Waiter to add to the queue

Description

Add an arbitrary waiter to the wait queue for the nominated folio.

void folio_unlock(struct folio *folio)

Unlock a locked folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

Unlocks the folio and wakes up any thread sleeping on the page lock.

Context

May be called from interrupt or process context. May not be called from NMI context.

void folio_end_private_2(struct folio *folio)

Clear PG_private_2 and wake any waiters.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

Clear the PG_private_2 bit on a folio and wake up any sleepers waiting for it. The folio reference held for PG_private_2 being set is released.

This is, for example, used when a netfs folio is being written to a local disk cache, thereby allowing writes to the cache for the same folio to be serialised.

void folio_wait_private_2(struct folio *folio)

Wait for PG_private_2 to be cleared on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to wait on.

Description

Wait for PG_private_2 (aka PG_fscache) to be cleared on a folio.

int folio_wait_private_2_killable(struct folio *folio)

Wait for PG_private_2 to be cleared on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to wait on.

Description

Wait for PG_private_2 (aka PG_fscache) to be cleared on a folio or until a fatal signal is received by the calling task.

Return

  • 0 if successful.
  • -EINTR if a fatal signal was encountered.
void folio_end_writeback(struct folio *folio)

End writeback against a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.
void __folio_lock(struct folio *folio)

Get a lock on the folio, assuming we need to sleep to get it.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to lock
pgoff_t page_cache_next_miss(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, unsigned long max_scan)

Find the next gap in the page cache.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
Mapping.
pgoff_t index
Index.
unsigned long max_scan
Maximum range to search.

Description

Search the range [index, min(index + max_scan - 1, ULONG_MAX)] for the gap with the lowest index.

This function may be called under the rcu_read_lock. However, this will not atomically search a snapshot of the cache at a single point in time. For example, if a gap is created at index 5, then subsequently a gap is created at index 10, page_cache_next_miss covering both indices may return 10 if called under the rcu_read_lock.

Return

The index of the gap if found, otherwise an index outside the range specified (in which case ‘return - index >= max_scan’ will be true). In the rare case of index wrap-around, 0 will be returned.

pgoff_t page_cache_prev_miss(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, unsigned long max_scan)

Find the previous gap in the page cache.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
Mapping.
pgoff_t index
Index.
unsigned long max_scan
Maximum range to search.

Description

Search the range [max(index - max_scan + 1, 0), index] for the gap with the highest index.

This function may be called under the rcu_read_lock. However, this will not atomically search a snapshot of the cache at a single point in time. For example, if a gap is created at index 10, then subsequently a gap is created at index 5, page_cache_prev_miss() covering both indices may return 5 if called under the rcu_read_lock.

Return

The index of the gap if found, otherwise an index outside the range specified (in which case ‘index - return >= max_scan’ will be true). In the rare case of wrap-around, ULONG_MAX will be returned.

struct folio * __filemap_get_folio(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, int fgp_flags, gfp_t gfp)

Find and get a reference to a folio.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to search.
pgoff_t index
The page index.
int fgp_flags
FGP flags modify how the folio is returned.
gfp_t gfp
Memory allocation flags to use if FGP_CREAT is specified.

Description

Looks up the page cache entry at mapping & index.

fgp_flags can be zero or more of these flags:

  • FGP_ACCESSED - The folio will be marked accessed.
  • FGP_LOCK - The folio is returned locked.
  • FGP_ENTRY - If there is a shadow / swap / DAX entry, return it instead of allocating a new folio to replace it.
  • FGP_CREAT - If no page is present then a new page is allocated using gfp and added to the page cache and the VM’s LRU list. The page is returned locked and with an increased refcount.
  • FGP_FOR_MMAP - The caller wants to do its own locking dance if the page is already in cache. If the page was allocated, unlock it before returning so the caller can do the same dance.
  • FGP_WRITE - The page will be written to by the caller.
  • FGP_NOFS - __GFP_FS will get cleared in gfp.
  • FGP_NOWAIT - Don’t get blocked by page lock.
  • FGP_STABLE - Wait for the folio to be stable (finished writeback)

If FGP_LOCK or FGP_CREAT are specified then the function may sleep even if the GFP flags specified for FGP_CREAT are atomic.

If there is a page cache page, it is returned with an increased refcount.

Return

The found folio or NULL otherwise.

unsigned filemap_get_folios(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *start, pgoff_t end, struct folio_batch *fbatch)

Get a batch of folios

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to search
pgoff_t *start
The starting page index
pgoff_t end
The final page index (inclusive)
struct folio_batch *fbatch
The batch to fill.

Description

Search for and return a batch of folios in the mapping starting at index start and up to index end (inclusive). The folios are returned in fbatch with an elevated reference count.

The first folio may start before start; if it does, it will contain start. The final folio may extend beyond end; if it does, it will contain end. The folios have ascending indices. There may be gaps between the folios if there are indices which have no folio in the page cache. If folios are added to or removed from the page cache while this is running, they may or may not be found by this call.

Return

The number of folios which were found. We also update start to index the next folio for the traversal.

unsigned find_get_pages_contig(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, unsigned int nr_pages, struct page **pages)

gang contiguous pagecache lookup

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to search
pgoff_t index
The starting page index
unsigned int nr_pages
The maximum number of pages
struct page **pages
Where the resulting pages are placed

Description

find_get_pages_contig() works exactly like find_get_pages_range(), except that the returned number of pages are guaranteed to be contiguous.

Return

the number of pages which were found.

unsigned find_get_pages_range_tag(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t *index, pgoff_t end, xa_mark_t tag, unsigned int nr_pages, struct page **pages)

Find and return head pages matching tag.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space to search
pgoff_t *index
the starting page index
pgoff_t end
The final page index (inclusive)
xa_mark_t tag
the tag index
unsigned int nr_pages
the maximum number of pages
struct page **pages
where the resulting pages are placed

Description

Like find_get_pages_range(), except we only return head pages which are tagged with tag. index is updated to the index immediately after the last page we return, ready for the next iteration.

Return

the number of pages which were found.

ssize_t filemap_read(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *iter, ssize_t already_read)

Read data from the page cache.

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb
The iocb to read.
struct iov_iter *iter
Destination for the data.
ssize_t already_read
Number of bytes already read by the caller.

Description

Copies data from the page cache. If the data is not currently present, uses the readahead and read_folio address_space operations to fetch it.

Return

Total number of bytes copied, including those already read by the caller. If an error happens before any bytes are copied, returns a negative error number.

ssize_t generic_file_read_iter(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *iter)

generic filesystem read routine

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb
kernel I/O control block
struct iov_iter *iter
destination for the data read

Description

This is the “read_iter()” routine for all filesystems that can use the page cache directly.

The IOCB_NOWAIT flag in iocb->ki_flags indicates that -EAGAIN shall be returned when no data can be read without waiting for I/O requests to complete; it doesn’t prevent readahead.

The IOCB_NOIO flag in iocb->ki_flags indicates that no new I/O requests shall be made for the read or for readahead. When no data can be read, -EAGAIN shall be returned. When readahead would be triggered, a partial, possibly empty read shall be returned.

Return

  • number of bytes copied, even for partial reads
  • negative error code (or 0 if IOCB_NOIO) if nothing was read
vm_fault_t filemap_fault(struct vm_fault *vmf)

read in file data for page fault handling

Parameters

struct vm_fault *vmf
struct vm_fault containing details of the fault

Description

filemap_fault() is invoked via the vma operations vector for a mapped memory region to read in file data during a page fault.

The goto’s are kind of ugly, but this streamlines the normal case of having it in the page cache, and handles the special cases reasonably without having a lot of duplicated code.

vma->vm_mm->mmap_lock must be held on entry.

If our return value has VM_FAULT_RETRY set, it’s because the mmap_lock may be dropped before doing I/O or by lock_folio_maybe_drop_mmap().

If our return value does not have VM_FAULT_RETRY set, the mmap_lock has not been released.

We never return with VM_FAULT_RETRY and a bit from VM_FAULT_ERROR set.

Return

bitwise-OR of VM_FAULT_ codes.

struct folio * read_cache_folio(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, filler_t filler, struct file *file)

Read into page cache, fill it if needed.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to read from.
pgoff_t index
The index to read.
filler_t filler
Function to perform the read, or NULL to use aops->read_folio().
struct file *file
Passed to filler function, may be NULL if not required.

Description

Read one page into the page cache. If it succeeds, the folio returned will contain index, but it may not be the first page of the folio.

If the filler function returns an error, it will be returned to the caller.

Context

May sleep. Expects mapping->invalidate_lock to be held.

Return

An uptodate folio on success, ERR_PTR() on failure.

struct page * read_cache_page_gfp(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, gfp_t gfp)

read into page cache, using specified page allocation flags.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the page’s address_space
pgoff_t index
the page index
gfp_t gfp
the page allocator flags to use if allocating

Description

This is the same as “read_mapping_page(mapping, index, NULL)”, but with any new page allocations done using the specified allocation flags.

If the page does not get brought uptodate, return -EIO.

The function expects mapping->invalidate_lock to be already held.

Return

up to date page on success, ERR_PTR() on failure.

ssize_t __generic_file_write_iter(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *from)

write data to a file

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb
IO state structure (file, offset, etc.)
struct iov_iter *from
iov_iter with data to write

Description

This function does all the work needed for actually writing data to a file. It does all basic checks, removes SUID from the file, updates modification times and calls proper subroutines depending on whether we do direct IO or a standard buffered write.

It expects i_rwsem to be grabbed unless we work on a block device or similar object which does not need locking at all.

This function does not take care of syncing data in case of O_SYNC write. A caller has to handle it. This is mainly due to the fact that we want to avoid syncing under i_rwsem.

Return

  • number of bytes written, even for truncated writes
  • negative error code if no data has been written at all
ssize_t generic_file_write_iter(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *from)

write data to a file

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb
IO state structure
struct iov_iter *from
iov_iter with data to write

Description

This is a wrapper around __generic_file_write_iter() to be used by most filesystems. It takes care of syncing the file in case of O_SYNC file and acquires i_rwsem as needed.

Return

  • negative error code if no data has been written at all of vfs_fsync_range() failed for a synchronous write
  • number of bytes written, even for truncated writes
bool filemap_release_folio(struct folio *folio, gfp_t gfp)

Release fs-specific metadata on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio which the kernel is trying to free.
gfp_t gfp
Memory allocation flags (and I/O mode).

Description

The address_space is trying to release any data attached to a folio (presumably at folio->private).

This will also be called if the private_2 flag is set on a page, indicating that the folio has other metadata associated with it.

The gfp argument specifies whether I/O may be performed to release this page (__GFP_IO), and whether the call may block (__GFP_RECLAIM & __GFP_FS).

Return

true if the release was successful, otherwise false.

Readahead

Readahead is used to read content into the page cache before it is explicitly requested by the application. Readahead only ever attempts to read folios that are not yet in the page cache. If a folio is present but not up-to-date, readahead will not try to read it. In that case a simple ->read_folio() will be requested.

Readahead is triggered when an application read request (whether a system call or a page fault) finds that the requested folio is not in the page cache, or that it is in the page cache and has the readahead flag set. This flag indicates that the folio was read as part of a previous readahead request and now that it has been accessed, it is time for the next readahead.

Each readahead request is partly synchronous read, and partly async readahead. This is reflected in the struct file_ra_state which contains ->size being the total number of pages, and ->async_size which is the number of pages in the async section. The readahead flag will be set on the first folio in this async section to trigger a subsequent readahead. Once a series of sequential reads has been established, there should be no need for a synchronous component and all readahead request will be fully asynchronous.

When either of the triggers causes a readahead, three numbers need to be determined: the start of the region to read, the size of the region, and the size of the async tail.

The start of the region is simply the first page address at or after the accessed address, which is not currently populated in the page cache. This is found with a simple search in the page cache.

The size of the async tail is determined by subtracting the size that was explicitly requested from the determined request size, unless this would be less than zero - then zero is used. NOTE THIS CALCULATION IS WRONG WHEN THE START OF THE REGION IS NOT THE ACCESSED PAGE. ALSO THIS CALCULATION IS NOT USED CONSISTENTLY.

The size of the region is normally determined from the size of the previous readahead which loaded the preceding pages. This may be discovered from the struct file_ra_state for simple sequential reads, or from examining the state of the page cache when multiple sequential reads are interleaved. Specifically: where the readahead was triggered by the readahead flag, the size of the previous readahead is assumed to be the number of pages from the triggering page to the start of the new readahead. In these cases, the size of the previous readahead is scaled, often doubled, for the new readahead, though see get_next_ra_size() for details.

If the size of the previous read cannot be determined, the number of preceding pages in the page cache is used to estimate the size of a previous read. This estimate could easily be misled by random reads being coincidentally adjacent, so it is ignored unless it is larger than the current request, and it is not scaled up, unless it is at the start of file.

In general readahead is accelerated at the start of the file, as reads from there are often sequential. There are other minor adjustments to the readahead size in various special cases and these are best discovered by reading the code.

The above calculation, based on the previous readahead size, determines the size of the readahead, to which any requested read size may be added.

Readahead requests are sent to the filesystem using the ->readahead() address space operation, for which mpage_readahead() is a canonical implementation. ->readahead() should normally initiate reads on all folios, but may fail to read any or all folios without causing an I/O error. The page cache reading code will issue a ->read_folio() request for any folio which ->readahead() did not read, and only an error from this will be final.

->readahead() will generally call readahead_folio() repeatedly to get each folio from those prepared for readahead. It may fail to read a folio by:

  • not calling readahead_folio() sufficiently many times, effectively ignoring some folios, as might be appropriate if the path to storage is congested.
  • failing to actually submit a read request for a given folio, possibly due to insufficient resources, or
  • getting an error during subsequent processing of a request.

In the last two cases, the folio should be unlocked by the filesystem to indicate that the read attempt has failed. In the first case the folio will be unlocked by the VFS.

Those folios not in the final async_size of the request should be considered to be important and ->readahead() should not fail them due to congestion or temporary resource unavailability, but should wait for necessary resources (e.g. memory or indexing information) to become available. Folios in the final async_size may be considered less urgent and failure to read them is more acceptable. In this case it is best to use filemap_remove_folio() to remove the folios from the page cache as is automatically done for folios that were not fetched with readahead_folio(). This will allow a subsequent synchronous readahead request to try them again. If they are left in the page cache, then they will be read individually using ->read_folio() which may be less efficient.

void page_cache_ra_unbounded(struct readahead_control *ractl, unsigned long nr_to_read, unsigned long lookahead_size)

Start unchecked readahead.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *ractl
Readahead control.
unsigned long nr_to_read
The number of pages to read.
unsigned long lookahead_size
Where to start the next readahead.

Description

This function is for filesystems to call when they want to start readahead beyond a file’s stated i_size. This is almost certainly not the function you want to call. Use page_cache_async_readahead() or page_cache_sync_readahead() instead.

Context

File is referenced by caller. Mutexes may be held by caller. May sleep, but will not reenter filesystem to reclaim memory.

void readahead_expand(struct readahead_control *ractl, loff_t new_start, size_t new_len)

Expand a readahead request

Parameters

struct readahead_control *ractl
The request to be expanded
loff_t new_start
The revised start
size_t new_len
The revised size of the request

Description

Attempt to expand a readahead request outwards from the current size to the specified size by inserting locked pages before and after the current window to increase the size to the new window. This may involve the insertion of THPs, in which case the window may get expanded even beyond what was requested.

The algorithm will stop if it encounters a conflicting page already in the pagecache and leave a smaller expansion than requested.

The caller must check for this by examining the revised ractl object for a different expansion than was requested.

Writeback

void balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(struct address_space *mapping)

balance dirty memory state.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address_space which was dirtied.

Description

Processes which are dirtying memory should call in here once for each page which was newly dirtied. The function will periodically check the system’s dirty state and will initiate writeback if needed.

Once we’re over the dirty memory limit we decrease the ratelimiting by a lot, to prevent individual processes from overshooting the limit by (ratelimit_pages) each.

void tag_pages_for_writeback(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end)

tag pages to be written by write_cache_pages

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to write
pgoff_t start
starting page index
pgoff_t end
ending page index (inclusive)

Description

This function scans the page range from start to end (inclusive) and tags all pages that have DIRTY tag set with a special TOWRITE tag. The idea is that write_cache_pages (or whoever calls this function) will then use TOWRITE tag to identify pages eligible for writeback. This mechanism is used to avoid livelocking of writeback by a process steadily creating new dirty pages in the file (thus it is important for this function to be quick so that it can tag pages faster than a dirtying process can create them).

int write_cache_pages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc, writepage_t writepage, void *data)

walk the list of dirty pages of the given address space and write all of them.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to write
struct writeback_control *wbc
subtract the number of written pages from *wbc->nr_to_write
writepage_t writepage
function called for each page
void *data
data passed to writepage function

Description

If a page is already under I/O, write_cache_pages() skips it, even if it’s dirty. This is desirable behaviour for memory-cleaning writeback, but it is INCORRECT for data-integrity system calls such as fsync(). fsync() and msync() need to guarantee that all the data which was dirty at the time the call was made get new I/O started against them. If wbc->sync_mode is WB_SYNC_ALL then we were called for data integrity and we must wait for existing IO to complete.

To avoid livelocks (when other process dirties new pages), we first tag pages which should be written back with TOWRITE tag and only then start writing them. For data-integrity sync we have to be careful so that we do not miss some pages (e.g., because some other process has cleared TOWRITE tag we set). The rule we follow is that TOWRITE tag can be cleared only by the process clearing the DIRTY tag (and submitting the page for IO).

To avoid deadlocks between range_cyclic writeback and callers that hold pages in PageWriteback to aggregate IO until write_cache_pages() returns, we do not loop back to the start of the file. Doing so causes a page lock/page writeback access order inversion - we should only ever lock multiple pages in ascending page->index order, and looping back to the start of the file violates that rule and causes deadlocks.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise

int generic_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc)

walk the list of dirty pages of the given address space and writepage() all of them.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space structure to write
struct writeback_control *wbc
subtract the number of written pages from *wbc->nr_to_write

Description

This is a library function, which implements the writepages() address_space_operation.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise

int folio_write_one(struct folio *folio)

write out a single folio and wait on I/O.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to write.

Description

The folio must be locked by the caller and will be unlocked upon return.

Note that the mapping’s AS_EIO/AS_ENOSPC flags will be cleared when this function returns.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise

bool filemap_dirty_folio(struct address_space *mapping, struct folio *folio)

Mark a folio dirty for filesystems which do not use buffer_heads.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
Address space this folio belongs to.
struct folio *folio
Folio to be marked as dirty.

Description

Filesystems which do not use buffer heads should call this function from their set_page_dirty address space operation. It ignores the contents of folio_get_private(), so if the filesystem marks individual blocks as dirty, the filesystem should handle that itself.

This is also sometimes used by filesystems which use buffer_heads when a single buffer is being dirtied: we want to set the folio dirty in that case, but not all the buffers. This is a “bottom-up” dirtying, whereas block_dirty_folio() is a “top-down” dirtying.

The caller must ensure this doesn’t race with truncation. Most will simply hold the folio lock, but e.g. zap_pte_range() calls with the folio mapped and the pte lock held, which also locks out truncation.

void folio_account_redirty(struct folio *folio)

Manually account for redirtying a page.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio which is being redirtied.

Description

Most filesystems should call folio_redirty_for_writepage() instead of this fuction. If your filesystem is doing writeback outside the context of a writeback_control(), it can call this when redirtying a folio, to de-account the dirty counters (NR_DIRTIED, WB_DIRTIED, tsk->nr_dirtied), so that they match the written counters (NR_WRITTEN, WB_WRITTEN) in long term. The mismatches will lead to systematic errors in balanced_dirty_ratelimit and the dirty pages position control.

bool folio_redirty_for_writepage(struct writeback_control *wbc, struct folio *folio)

Decline to write a dirty folio.

Parameters

struct writeback_control *wbc
The writeback control.
struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

When a writepage implementation decides that it doesn’t want to write folio for some reason, it should call this function, unlock folio and return 0.

Return

True if we redirtied the folio. False if someone else dirtied it first.

bool folio_mark_dirty(struct folio *folio)

Mark a folio as being modified.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

The folio may not be truncated while this function is running. Holding the folio lock is sufficient to prevent truncation, but some callers cannot acquire a sleeping lock. These callers instead hold the page table lock for a page table which contains at least one page in this folio. Truncation will block on the page table lock as it unmaps pages before removing the folio from its mapping.

Return

True if the folio was newly dirtied, false if it was already dirty.

void folio_wait_writeback(struct folio *folio)

Wait for a folio to finish writeback.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to wait for.

Description

If the folio is currently being written back to storage, wait for the I/O to complete.

Context

Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio. If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback has finished.

int folio_wait_writeback_killable(struct folio *folio)

Wait for a folio to finish writeback.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to wait for.

Description

If the folio is currently being written back to storage, wait for the I/O to complete or a fatal signal to arrive.

Context

Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio. If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback has finished.

Return

0 on success, -EINTR if we get a fatal signal while waiting.

void folio_wait_stable(struct folio *folio)

wait for writeback to finish, if necessary.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to wait on.

Description

This function determines if the given folio is related to a backing device that requires folio contents to be held stable during writeback. If so, then it will wait for any pending writeback to complete.

Context

Sleeps. Must be called in process context and with no spinlocks held. Caller should hold a reference on the folio. If the folio is not locked, writeback may start again after writeback has finished.

Truncate

void folio_invalidate(struct folio *folio, size_t offset, size_t length)

Invalidate part or all of a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio which is affected.
size_t offset
start of the range to invalidate
size_t length
length of the range to invalidate

Description

folio_invalidate() is called when all or part of the folio has become invalidated by a truncate operation.

folio_invalidate() does not have to release all buffers, but it must ensure that no dirty buffer is left outside offset and that no I/O is underway against any of the blocks which are outside the truncation point. Because the caller is about to free (and possibly reuse) those blocks on-disk.

void truncate_inode_pages_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)

truncate range of pages specified by start & end byte offsets

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping to truncate
loff_t lstart
offset from which to truncate
loff_t lend
offset to which to truncate (inclusive)

Description

Truncate the page cache, removing the pages that are between specified offsets (and zeroing out partial pages if lstart or lend + 1 is not page aligned).

Truncate takes two passes - the first pass is nonblocking. It will not block on page locks and it will not block on writeback. The second pass will wait. This is to prevent as much IO as possible in the affected region. The first pass will remove most pages, so the search cost of the second pass is low.

We pass down the cache-hot hint to the page freeing code. Even if the mapping is large, it is probably the case that the final pages are the most recently touched, and freeing happens in ascending file offset order.

Note that since ->invalidate_folio() accepts range to invalidate truncate_inode_pages_range is able to handle cases where lend + 1 is not page aligned properly.

void truncate_inode_pages(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t lstart)

truncate all the pages from an offset

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping to truncate
loff_t lstart
offset from which to truncate

Description

Called under (and serialised by) inode->i_rwsem and mapping->invalidate_lock.

Note

When this function returns, there can be a page in the process of deletion (inside __filemap_remove_folio()) in the specified range. Thus mapping->nrpages can be non-zero when this function returns even after truncation of the whole mapping.

void truncate_inode_pages_final(struct address_space *mapping)

truncate all pages before inode dies

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping to truncate

Description

Called under (and serialized by) inode->i_rwsem.

Filesystems have to use this in the .evict_inode path to inform the VM that this is the final truncate and the inode is going away.

unsigned long invalidate_mapping_pages(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end)

Invalidate all clean, unlocked cache of one inode

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space which holds the cache to invalidate
pgoff_t start
the offset ‘from’ which to invalidate
pgoff_t end
the offset ‘to’ which to invalidate (inclusive)

Description

This function removes pages that are clean, unmapped and unlocked, as well as shadow entries. It will not block on IO activity.

If you want to remove all the pages of one inode, regardless of their use and writeback state, use truncate_inode_pages().

Return

the number of the cache entries that were invalidated

int invalidate_inode_pages2_range(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end)

remove range of pages from an address_space

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space
pgoff_t start
the page offset ‘from’ which to invalidate
pgoff_t end
the page offset ‘to’ which to invalidate (inclusive)

Description

Any pages which are found to be mapped into pagetables are unmapped prior to invalidation.

Return

-EBUSY if any pages could not be invalidated.

int invalidate_inode_pages2(struct address_space *mapping)

remove all pages from an address_space

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space

Description

Any pages which are found to be mapped into pagetables are unmapped prior to invalidation.

Return

-EBUSY if any pages could not be invalidated.

void truncate_pagecache(struct inode *inode, loff_t newsize)

unmap and remove pagecache that has been truncated

Parameters

struct inode *inode
inode
loff_t newsize
new file size

Description

inode’s new i_size must already be written before truncate_pagecache is called.

This function should typically be called before the filesystem releases resources associated with the freed range (eg. deallocates blocks). This way, pagecache will always stay logically coherent with on-disk format, and the filesystem would not have to deal with situations such as writepage being called for a page that has already had its underlying blocks deallocated.

void truncate_setsize(struct inode *inode, loff_t newsize)

update inode and pagecache for a new file size

Parameters

struct inode *inode
inode
loff_t newsize
new file size

Description

truncate_setsize updates i_size and performs pagecache truncation (if necessary) to newsize. It will be typically be called from the filesystem’s setattr function when ATTR_SIZE is passed in.

Must be called with a lock serializing truncates and writes (generally i_rwsem but e.g. xfs uses a different lock) and before all filesystem specific block truncation has been performed.

void pagecache_isize_extended(struct inode *inode, loff_t from, loff_t to)

update pagecache after extension of i_size

Parameters

struct inode *inode
inode for which i_size was extended
loff_t from
original inode size
loff_t to
new inode size

Description

Handle extension of inode size either caused by extending truncate or by write starting after current i_size. We mark the page straddling current i_size RO so that page_mkwrite() is called on the nearest write access to the page. This way filesystem can be sure that page_mkwrite() is called on the page before user writes to the page via mmap after the i_size has been changed.

The function must be called after i_size is updated so that page fault coming after we unlock the page will already see the new i_size. The function must be called while we still hold i_rwsem - this not only makes sure i_size is stable but also that userspace cannot observe new i_size value before we are prepared to store mmap writes at new inode size.

void truncate_pagecache_range(struct inode *inode, loff_t lstart, loff_t lend)

unmap and remove pagecache that is hole-punched

Parameters

struct inode *inode
inode
loff_t lstart
offset of beginning of hole
loff_t lend
offset of last byte of hole

Description

This function should typically be called before the filesystem releases resources associated with the freed range (eg. deallocates blocks). This way, pagecache will always stay logically coherent with on-disk format, and the filesystem would not have to deal with situations such as writepage being called for a page that has already had its underlying blocks deallocated.

void filemap_set_wb_err(struct address_space *mapping, int err)

set a writeback error on an address_space

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping in which to set writeback error
int err
error to be set in mapping

Description

When writeback fails in some way, we must record that error so that userspace can be informed when fsync and the like are called. We endeavor to report errors on any file that was open at the time of the error. Some internal callers also need to know when writeback errors have occurred.

When a writeback error occurs, most filesystems will want to call filemap_set_wb_err to record the error in the mapping so that it will be automatically reported whenever fsync is called on the file.

int filemap_check_wb_err(struct address_space *mapping, errseq_t since)

has an error occurred since the mark was sampled?

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping to check for writeback errors
errseq_t since
previously-sampled errseq_t

Description

Grab the errseq_t value from the mapping, and see if it has changed “since” the given value was sampled.

If it has then report the latest error set, otherwise return 0.

errseq_t filemap_sample_wb_err(struct address_space *mapping)

sample the current errseq_t to test for later errors

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
mapping to be sampled

Description

Writeback errors are always reported relative to a particular sample point in the past. This function provides those sample points.

errseq_t file_sample_sb_err(struct file *file)

sample the current errseq_t to test for later errors

Parameters

struct file *file
file pointer to be sampled

Description

Grab the most current superblock-level errseq_t value for the given struct file.

void mapping_set_error(struct address_space *mapping, int error)

record a writeback error in the address_space

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the mapping in which an error should be set
int error
the error to set in the mapping

Description

When writeback fails in some way, we must record that error so that userspace can be informed when fsync and the like are called. We endeavor to report errors on any file that was open at the time of the error. Some internal callers also need to know when writeback errors have occurred.

When a writeback error occurs, most filesystems will want to call mapping_set_error to record the error in the mapping so that it can be reported when the application calls fsync(2).

void mapping_set_large_folios(struct address_space *mapping)

Indicate the file supports large folios.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The file.

Description

The filesystem should call this function in its inode constructor to indicate that the VFS can use large folios to cache the contents of the file.

Context

This should not be called while the inode is active as it is non-atomic.

struct address_space * folio_file_mapping(struct folio *folio)

Find the mapping this folio belongs to.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

For folios which are in the page cache, return the mapping that this page belongs to. Folios in the swap cache return the mapping of the swap file or swap device where the data is stored. This is different from the mapping returned by folio_mapping(). The only reason to use it is if, like NFS, you return 0 from ->activate_swapfile.

Do not call this for folios which aren’t in the page cache or swap cache.

struct inode * folio_inode(struct folio *folio)

Get the host inode for this folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

For folios which are in the page cache, return the inode that this folio belongs to.

Do not call this for folios which aren’t in the page cache.

void folio_attach_private(struct folio *folio, void *data)

Attach private data to a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
Folio to attach data to.
void *data
Data to attach to folio.

Description

Attaching private data to a folio increments the page’s reference count. The data must be detached before the folio will be freed.

void * folio_change_private(struct folio *folio, void *data)

Change private data on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
Folio to change the data on.
void *data
Data to set on the folio.

Description

Change the private data attached to a folio and return the old data. The page must previously have had data attached and the data must be detached before the folio will be freed.

Return

Data that was previously attached to the folio.

void * folio_detach_private(struct folio *folio)

Detach private data from a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
Folio to detach data from.

Description

Removes the data that was previously attached to the folio and decrements the refcount on the page.

Return

Data that was attached to the folio.

struct folio * filemap_get_folio(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index)

Find and get a folio.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to search.
pgoff_t index
The page index.

Description

Looks up the page cache entry at mapping & index. If a folio is present, it is returned with an increased refcount.

Otherwise, NULL is returned.

struct folio * filemap_lock_folio(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index)

Find and lock a folio.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address_space to search.
pgoff_t index
The page index.

Description

Looks up the page cache entry at mapping & index. If a folio is present, it is returned locked with an increased refcount.

Context

May sleep.

Return

A folio or NULL if there is no folio in the cache for this index. Will not return a shadow, swap or DAX entry.

struct page * find_get_page(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t offset)

find and get a page reference

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space to search
pgoff_t offset
the page index

Description

Looks up the page cache slot at mapping & offset. If there is a page cache page, it is returned with an increased refcount.

Otherwise, NULL is returned.

struct page * find_lock_page(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index)

locate, pin and lock a pagecache page

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address_space to search
pgoff_t index
the page index

Description

Looks up the page cache entry at mapping & index. If there is a page cache page, it is returned locked and with an increased refcount.

Context

May sleep.

Return

A struct page or NULL if there is no page in the cache for this index.

struct page * find_or_create_page(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index, gfp_t gfp_mask)

locate or add a pagecache page

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the page’s address_space
pgoff_t index
the page’s index into the mapping
gfp_t gfp_mask
page allocation mode

Description

Looks up the page cache slot at mapping & offset. If there is a page cache page, it is returned locked and with an increased refcount.

If the page is not present, a new page is allocated using gfp_mask and added to the page cache and the VM’s LRU list. The page is returned locked and with an increased refcount.

On memory exhaustion, NULL is returned.

find_or_create_page() may sleep, even if gfp_flags specifies an atomic allocation!

struct page * grab_cache_page_nowait(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t index)

returns locked page at given index in given cache

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
target address_space
pgoff_t index
the page index

Description

Same as grab_cache_page(), but do not wait if the page is unavailable. This is intended for speculative data generators, where the data can be regenerated if the page couldn’t be grabbed. This routine should be safe to call while holding the lock for another page.

Clear __GFP_FS when allocating the page to avoid recursion into the fs and deadlock against the caller’s locked page.

pgoff_t folio_index(struct folio *folio)

File index of a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

For a folio which is either in the page cache or the swap cache, return its index within the address_space it belongs to. If you know the page is definitely in the page cache, you can look at the folio’s index directly.

Return

The index (offset in units of pages) of a folio in its file.

pgoff_t folio_next_index(struct folio *folio)

Get the index of the next folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The current folio.

Return

The index of the folio which follows this folio in the file.

struct page * folio_file_page(struct folio *folio, pgoff_t index)

The page for a particular index.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio which contains this index.
pgoff_t index
The index we want to look up.

Description

Sometimes after looking up a folio in the page cache, we need to obtain the specific page for an index (eg a page fault).

Return

The page containing the file data for this index.

bool folio_contains(struct folio *folio, pgoff_t index)

Does this folio contain this index?

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.
pgoff_t index
The page index within the file.

Context

The caller should have the page locked in order to prevent (eg) shmem from moving the page between the page cache and swap cache and changing its index in the middle of the operation.

Return

true or false.

loff_t folio_pos(struct folio *folio)

Returns the byte position of this folio in its file.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.
loff_t folio_file_pos(struct folio *folio)

Returns the byte position of this folio in its file.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

This differs from folio_pos() for folios which belong to a swap file. NFS is the only filesystem today which needs to use folio_file_pos().

bool folio_trylock(struct folio *folio)

Attempt to lock a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to attempt to lock.

Description

Sometimes it is undesirable to wait for a folio to be unlocked (eg when the locks are being taken in the wrong order, or if making progress through a batch of folios is more important than processing them in order). Usually folio_lock() is the correct function to call.

Context

Any context.

Return

Whether the lock was successfully acquired.

void folio_lock(struct folio *folio)

Lock this folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to lock.

Description

The folio lock protects against many things, probably more than it should. It is primarily held while a folio is being brought uptodate, either from its backing file or from swap. It is also held while a folio is being truncated from its address_space, so holding the lock is sufficient to keep folio->mapping stable.

The folio lock is also held while write() is modifying the page to provide POSIX atomicity guarantees (as long as the write does not cross a page boundary). Other modifications to the data in the folio do not hold the folio lock and can race with writes, eg DMA and stores to mapped pages.

Context

May sleep. If you need to acquire the locks of two or more folios, they must be in order of ascending index, if they are in the same address_space. If they are in different address_spaces, acquire the lock of the folio which belongs to the address_space which has the lowest address in memory first.

void lock_page(struct page *page)

Lock the folio containing this page.

Parameters

struct page *page
The page to lock.

Description

See folio_lock() for a description of what the lock protects. This is a legacy function and new code should probably use folio_lock() instead.

Context

May sleep. Pages in the same folio share a lock, so do not attempt to lock two pages which share a folio.

int folio_lock_killable(struct folio *folio)

Lock this folio, interruptible by a fatal signal.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to lock.

Description

Attempts to lock the folio, like folio_lock(), except that the sleep to acquire the lock is interruptible by a fatal signal.

Context

May sleep; see folio_lock().

Return

0 if the lock was acquired; -EINTR if a fatal signal was received.

bool filemap_range_needs_writeback(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start_byte, loff_t end_byte)

check if range potentially needs writeback

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address space within which to check
loff_t start_byte
offset in bytes where the range starts
loff_t end_byte
offset in bytes where the range ends (inclusive)

Description

Find at least one page in the range supplied, usually used to check if direct writing in this range will trigger a writeback. Used by O_DIRECT read/write with IOCB_NOWAIT, to see if the caller needs to do filemap_write_and_wait_range() before proceeding.

Return

true if the caller should do filemap_write_and_wait_range() before doing O_DIRECT to a page in this range, false otherwise.

struct readahead_control

Describes a readahead request.

Definition

struct readahead_control {
  struct file *file;
  struct address_space *mapping;
  struct file_ra_state *ra;
};

Members

file
The file, used primarily by network filesystems for authentication. May be NULL if invoked internally by the filesystem.
mapping
Readahead this filesystem object.
ra
File readahead state. May be NULL.

Description

A readahead request is for consecutive pages. Filesystems which implement the ->readahead method should call readahead_page() or readahead_page_batch() in a loop and attempt to start I/O against each page in the request.

Most of the fields in this struct are private and should be accessed by the functions below.

void page_cache_sync_readahead(struct address_space *mapping, struct file_ra_state *ra, struct file *file, pgoff_t index, unsigned long req_count)

generic file readahead

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address_space which holds the pagecache and I/O vectors
struct file_ra_state *ra
file_ra_state which holds the readahead state
struct file *file
Used by the filesystem for authentication.
pgoff_t index
Index of first page to be read.
unsigned long req_count
Total number of pages being read by the caller.

Description

page_cache_sync_readahead() should be called when a cache miss happened: it will submit the read. The readahead logic may decide to piggyback more pages onto the read request if access patterns suggest it will improve performance.

void page_cache_async_readahead(struct address_space *mapping, struct file_ra_state *ra, struct file *file, struct folio *folio, pgoff_t index, unsigned long req_count)

file readahead for marked pages

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
address_space which holds the pagecache and I/O vectors
struct file_ra_state *ra
file_ra_state which holds the readahead state
struct file *file
Used by the filesystem for authentication.
struct folio *folio
The folio at index which triggered the readahead call.
pgoff_t index
Index of first page to be read.
unsigned long req_count
Total number of pages being read by the caller.

Description

page_cache_async_readahead() should be called when a page is used which is marked as PageReadahead; this is a marker to suggest that the application has used up enough of the readahead window that we should start pulling in more pages.

struct page * readahead_page(struct readahead_control *ractl)

Get the next page to read.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *ractl
The current readahead request.

Context

The page is locked and has an elevated refcount. The caller should decreases the refcount once the page has been submitted for I/O and unlock the page once all I/O to that page has completed.

Return

A pointer to the next page, or NULL if we are done.

struct folio * readahead_folio(struct readahead_control *ractl)

Get the next folio to read.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *ractl
The current readahead request.

Context

The folio is locked. The caller should unlock the folio once all I/O to that folio has completed.

Return

A pointer to the next folio, or NULL if we are done.

readahead_page_batch(rac, array)

Get a batch of pages to read.

Parameters

rac
The current readahead request.
array
An array of pointers to struct page.

Context

The pages are locked and have an elevated refcount. The caller should decreases the refcount once the page has been submitted for I/O and unlock the page once all I/O to that page has completed.

Return

The number of pages placed in the array. 0 indicates the request is complete.

loff_t readahead_pos(struct readahead_control *rac)

The byte offset into the file of this readahead request.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac
The readahead request.
size_t readahead_length(struct readahead_control *rac)

The number of bytes in this readahead request.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac
The readahead request.
pgoff_t readahead_index(struct readahead_control *rac)

The index of the first page in this readahead request.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac
The readahead request.
unsigned int readahead_count(struct readahead_control *rac)

The number of pages in this readahead request.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac
The readahead request.
size_t readahead_batch_length(struct readahead_control *rac)

The number of bytes in the current batch.

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac
The readahead request.
ssize_t folio_mkwrite_check_truncate(struct folio *folio, struct inode *inode)

check if folio was truncated

Parameters

struct folio *folio
the folio to check
struct inode *inode
the inode to check the folio against

Return

the number of bytes in the folio up to EOF, or -EFAULT if the folio was truncated.

int page_mkwrite_check_truncate(struct page *page, struct inode *inode)

check if page was truncated

Parameters

struct page *page
the page to check
struct inode *inode
the inode to check the page against

Description

Returns the number of bytes in the page up to EOF, or -EFAULT if the page was truncated.

unsigned int i_blocks_per_folio(struct inode *inode, struct folio *folio)

How many blocks fit in this folio.

Parameters

struct inode *inode
The inode which contains the blocks.
struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

If the block size is larger than the size of this folio, return zero.

Context

The caller should hold a refcount on the folio to prevent it from being split.

Return

The number of filesystem blocks covered by this folio.

Memory pools

void mempool_exit(mempool_t *pool)

exit a mempool initialized with mempool_init()

Parameters

mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool which was initialized with mempool_init().

Description

Free all reserved elements in pool and pool itself. This function only sleeps if the free_fn() function sleeps.

May be called on a zeroed but uninitialized mempool (i.e. allocated with kzalloc()).

void mempool_destroy(mempool_t *pool)

deallocate a memory pool

Parameters

mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool which was allocated via mempool_create().

Description

Free all reserved elements in pool and pool itself. This function only sleeps if the free_fn() function sleeps.

int mempool_init(mempool_t *pool, int min_nr, mempool_alloc_t *alloc_fn, mempool_free_t *free_fn, void *pool_data)

initialize a memory pool

Parameters

mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool that should be initialized
int min_nr
the minimum number of elements guaranteed to be allocated for this pool.
mempool_alloc_t *alloc_fn
user-defined element-allocation function.
mempool_free_t *free_fn
user-defined element-freeing function.
void *pool_data
optional private data available to the user-defined functions.

Description

Like mempool_create(), but initializes the pool in (i.e. embedded in another structure).

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

mempool_t * mempool_create(int min_nr, mempool_alloc_t *alloc_fn, mempool_free_t *free_fn, void *pool_data)

create a memory pool

Parameters

int min_nr
the minimum number of elements guaranteed to be allocated for this pool.
mempool_alloc_t *alloc_fn
user-defined element-allocation function.
mempool_free_t *free_fn
user-defined element-freeing function.
void *pool_data
optional private data available to the user-defined functions.

Description

this function creates and allocates a guaranteed size, preallocated memory pool. The pool can be used from the mempool_alloc() and mempool_free() functions. This function might sleep. Both the alloc_fn() and the free_fn() functions might sleep - as long as the mempool_alloc() function is not called from IRQ contexts.

Return

pointer to the created memory pool object or NULL on error.

int mempool_resize(mempool_t *pool, int new_min_nr)

resize an existing memory pool

Parameters

mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool which was allocated via mempool_create().
int new_min_nr
the new minimum number of elements guaranteed to be allocated for this pool.

Description

This function shrinks/grows the pool. In the case of growing, it cannot be guaranteed that the pool will be grown to the new size immediately, but new mempool_free() calls will refill it. This function may sleep.

Note, the caller must guarantee that no mempool_destroy is called while this function is running. mempool_alloc() & mempool_free() might be called (eg. from IRQ contexts) while this function executes.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

void * mempool_alloc(mempool_t *pool, gfp_t gfp_mask)

allocate an element from a specific memory pool

Parameters

mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool which was allocated via mempool_create().
gfp_t gfp_mask
the usual allocation bitmask.

Description

this function only sleeps if the alloc_fn() function sleeps or returns NULL. Note that due to preallocation, this function never fails when called from process contexts. (it might fail if called from an IRQ context.)

Note

using __GFP_ZERO is not supported.

Return

pointer to the allocated element or NULL on error.

void mempool_free(void *element, mempool_t *pool)

return an element to the pool.

Parameters

void *element
pool element pointer.
mempool_t *pool
pointer to the memory pool which was allocated via mempool_create().

Description

this function only sleeps if the free_fn() function sleeps.

DMA pools

struct dma_pool * dma_pool_create(const char *name, struct device *dev, size_t size, size_t align, size_t boundary)

Creates a pool of consistent memory blocks, for dma.

Parameters

const char *name
name of pool, for diagnostics
struct device *dev
device that will be doing the DMA
size_t size
size of the blocks in this pool.
size_t align
alignment requirement for blocks; must be a power of two
size_t boundary
returned blocks won’t cross this power of two boundary

Context

not in_interrupt()

Description

Given one of these pools, dma_pool_alloc() may be used to allocate memory. Such memory will all have “consistent” DMA mappings, accessible by the device and its driver without using cache flushing primitives. The actual size of blocks allocated may be larger than requested because of alignment.

If boundary is nonzero, objects returned from dma_pool_alloc() won’t cross that size boundary. This is useful for devices which have addressing restrictions on individual DMA transfers, such as not crossing boundaries of 4KBytes.

Return

a dma allocation pool with the requested characteristics, or NULL if one can’t be created.

void dma_pool_destroy(struct dma_pool *pool)

destroys a pool of dma memory blocks.

Parameters

struct dma_pool *pool
dma pool that will be destroyed

Context

!in_interrupt()

Description

Caller guarantees that no more memory from the pool is in use, and that nothing will try to use the pool after this call.

void * dma_pool_alloc(struct dma_pool *pool, gfp_t mem_flags, dma_addr_t *handle)

get a block of consistent memory

Parameters

struct dma_pool *pool
dma pool that will produce the block
gfp_t mem_flags
GFP_* bitmask
dma_addr_t *handle
pointer to dma address of block

Return

the kernel virtual address of a currently unused block, and reports its dma address through the handle. If such a memory block can’t be allocated, NULL is returned.

void dma_pool_free(struct dma_pool *pool, void *vaddr, dma_addr_t dma)

put block back into dma pool

Parameters

struct dma_pool *pool
the dma pool holding the block
void *vaddr
virtual address of block
dma_addr_t dma
dma address of block

Description

Caller promises neither device nor driver will again touch this block unless it is first re-allocated.

struct dma_pool * dmam_pool_create(const char *name, struct device *dev, size_t size, size_t align, size_t allocation)

Managed dma_pool_create()

Parameters

const char *name
name of pool, for diagnostics
struct device *dev
device that will be doing the DMA
size_t size
size of the blocks in this pool.
size_t align
alignment requirement for blocks; must be a power of two
size_t allocation
returned blocks won’t cross this boundary (or zero)

Description

Managed dma_pool_create(). DMA pool created with this function is automatically destroyed on driver detach.

Return

a managed dma allocation pool with the requested characteristics, or NULL if one can’t be created.

void dmam_pool_destroy(struct dma_pool *pool)

Managed dma_pool_destroy()

Parameters

struct dma_pool *pool
dma pool that will be destroyed

Description

Managed dma_pool_destroy().

More Memory Management Functions

void zap_vma_ptes(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address, unsigned long size)

remove ptes mapping the vma

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
vm_area_struct holding ptes to be zapped
unsigned long address
starting address of pages to zap
unsigned long size
number of bytes to zap

Description

This function only unmaps ptes assigned to VM_PFNMAP vmas.

The entire address range must be fully contained within the vma.

int vm_insert_pages(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, struct page **pages, unsigned long *num)

insert multiple pages into user vma, batching the pmd lock.

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target start user address of these pages
struct page **pages
source kernel pages
unsigned long *num
in: number of pages to map. out: number of pages that were not mapped. (0 means all pages were successfully mapped).

Description

Preferred over vm_insert_page() when inserting multiple pages.

In case of error, we may have mapped a subset of the provided pages. It is the caller’s responsibility to account for this case.

The same restrictions apply as in vm_insert_page().

int vm_insert_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, struct page *page)

insert single page into user vma

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target user address of this page
struct page *page
source kernel page

Description

This allows drivers to insert individual pages they’ve allocated into a user vma.

The page has to be a nice clean _individual_ kernel allocation. If you allocate a compound page, you need to have marked it as such (__GFP_COMP), or manually just split the page up yourself (see split_page()).

NOTE! Traditionally this was done with “remap_pfn_range()” which took an arbitrary page protection parameter. This doesn’t allow that. Your vma protection will have to be set up correctly, which means that if you want a shared writable mapping, you’d better ask for a shared writable mapping!

The page does not need to be reserved.

Usually this function is called from f_op->mmap() handler under mm->mmap_lock write-lock, so it can change vma->vm_flags. Caller must set VM_MIXEDMAP on vma if it wants to call this function from other places, for example from page-fault handler.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

int vm_map_pages(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page **pages, unsigned long num)

maps range of kernel pages starts with non zero offset

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
struct page **pages
pointer to array of source kernel pages
unsigned long num
number of pages in page array

Description

Maps an object consisting of num pages, catering for the user’s requested vm_pgoff

If we fail to insert any page into the vma, the function will return immediately leaving any previously inserted pages present. Callers from the mmap handler may immediately return the error as their caller will destroy the vma, removing any successfully inserted pages. Other callers should make their own arrangements for calling unmap_region().

Context

Process context. Called by mmap handlers.

Return

0 on success and error code otherwise.

int vm_map_pages_zero(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page **pages, unsigned long num)

map range of kernel pages starts with zero offset

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
struct page **pages
pointer to array of source kernel pages
unsigned long num
number of pages in page array

Description

Similar to vm_map_pages(), except that it explicitly sets the offset to 0. This function is intended for the drivers that did not consider vm_pgoff.

Context

Process context. Called by mmap handlers.

Return

0 on success and error code otherwise.

vm_fault_t vmf_insert_pfn_prot(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, unsigned long pfn, pgprot_t pgprot)

insert single pfn into user vma with specified pgprot

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target user address of this page
unsigned long pfn
source kernel pfn
pgprot_t pgprot
pgprot flags for the inserted page

Description

This is exactly like vmf_insert_pfn(), except that it allows drivers to override pgprot on a per-page basis.

This only makes sense for IO mappings, and it makes no sense for COW mappings. In general, using multiple vmas is preferable; vmf_insert_pfn_prot should only be used if using multiple VMAs is impractical.

See vmf_insert_mixed_prot() for a discussion of the implication of using a value of pgprot different from that of vma->vm_page_prot.

Context

Process context. May allocate using GFP_KERNEL.

Return

vm_fault_t value.

vm_fault_t vmf_insert_pfn(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, unsigned long pfn)

insert single pfn into user vma

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target user address of this page
unsigned long pfn
source kernel pfn

Description

Similar to vm_insert_page, this allows drivers to insert individual pages they’ve allocated into a user vma. Same comments apply.

This function should only be called from a vm_ops->fault handler, and in that case the handler should return the result of this function.

vma cannot be a COW mapping.

As this is called only for pages that do not currently exist, we do not need to flush old virtual caches or the TLB.

Context

Process context. May allocate using GFP_KERNEL.

Return

vm_fault_t value.

vm_fault_t vmf_insert_mixed_prot(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, pfn_t pfn, pgprot_t pgprot)

insert single pfn into user vma with specified pgprot

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target user address of this page
pfn_t pfn
source kernel pfn
pgprot_t pgprot
pgprot flags for the inserted page

Description

This is exactly like vmf_insert_mixed(), except that it allows drivers to override pgprot on a per-page basis.

Typically this function should be used by drivers to set caching- and encryption bits different than those of vma->vm_page_prot, because the caching- or encryption mode may not be known at mmap() time. This is ok as long as vma->vm_page_prot is not used by the core vm to set caching and encryption bits for those vmas (except for COW pages). This is ensured by core vm only modifying these page table entries using functions that don’t touch caching- or encryption bits, using pte_modify() if needed. (See for example mprotect()). Also when new page-table entries are created, this is only done using the fault() callback, and never using the value of vma->vm_page_prot, except for page-table entries that point to anonymous pages as the result of COW.

Context

Process context. May allocate using GFP_KERNEL.

Return

vm_fault_t value.

int remap_pfn_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, unsigned long pfn, unsigned long size, pgprot_t prot)

remap kernel memory to userspace

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
unsigned long addr
target page aligned user address to start at
unsigned long pfn
page frame number of kernel physical memory address
unsigned long size
size of mapping area
pgprot_t prot
page protection flags for this mapping

Note

this is only safe if the mm semaphore is held when called.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

int vm_iomap_memory(struct vm_area_struct *vma, phys_addr_t start, unsigned long len)

remap memory to userspace

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
user vma to map to
phys_addr_t start
start of the physical memory to be mapped
unsigned long len
size of area

Description

This is a simplified io_remap_pfn_range() for common driver use. The driver just needs to give us the physical memory range to be mapped, we’ll figure out the rest from the vma information.

NOTE! Some drivers might want to tweak vma->vm_page_prot first to get whatever write-combining details or similar.

Return

0 on success, negative error code otherwise.

void unmap_mapping_pages(struct address_space *mapping, pgoff_t start, pgoff_t nr, bool even_cows)

Unmap pages from processes.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
The address space containing pages to be unmapped.
pgoff_t start
Index of first page to be unmapped.
pgoff_t nr
Number of pages to be unmapped. 0 to unmap to end of file.
bool even_cows
Whether to unmap even private COWed pages.

Description

Unmap the pages in this address space from any userspace process which has them mmaped. Generally, you want to remove COWed pages as well when a file is being truncated, but not when invalidating pages from the page cache.

void unmap_mapping_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t const holebegin, loff_t const holelen, int even_cows)

unmap the portion of all mmaps in the specified address_space corresponding to the specified byte range in the underlying file.

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping
the address space containing mmaps to be unmapped.
loff_t const holebegin
byte in first page to unmap, relative to the start of the underlying file. This will be rounded down to a PAGE_SIZE boundary. Note that this is different from truncate_pagecache(), which must keep the partial page. In contrast, we must get rid of partial pages.
loff_t const holelen
size of prospective hole in bytes. This will be rounded up to a PAGE_SIZE boundary. A holelen of zero truncates to the end of the file.
int even_cows
1 when truncating a file, unmap even private COWed pages; but 0 when invalidating pagecache, don’t throw away private data.
int follow_pte(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long address, pte_t **ptepp, spinlock_t **ptlp)

look up PTE at a user virtual address

Parameters

struct mm_struct *mm
the mm_struct of the target address space
unsigned long address
user virtual address
pte_t **ptepp
location to store found PTE
spinlock_t **ptlp
location to store the lock for the PTE

Description

On a successful return, the pointer to the PTE is stored in ptepp; the corresponding lock is taken and its location is stored in ptlp. The contents of the PTE are only stable until ptlp is released; any further use, if any, must be protected against invalidation with MMU notifiers.

Only IO mappings and raw PFN mappings are allowed. The mmap semaphore should be taken for read.

KVM uses this function. While it is arguably less bad than follow_pfn, it is not a good general-purpose API.

Return

zero on success, -ve otherwise.

int follow_pfn(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address, unsigned long *pfn)

look up PFN at a user virtual address

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
memory mapping
unsigned long address
user virtual address
unsigned long *pfn
location to store found PFN

Description

Only IO mappings and raw PFN mappings are allowed.

This function does not allow the caller to read the permissions of the PTE. Do not use it.

Return

zero and the pfn at pfn on success, -ve otherwise.

int generic_access_phys(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, void *buf, int len, int write)

generic implementation for iomem mmap access

Parameters

struct vm_area_struct *vma
the vma to access
unsigned long addr
userspace address, not relative offset within vma
void *buf
buffer to read/write
int len
length of transfer
int write
set to FOLL_WRITE when writing, otherwise reading

Description

This is a generic implementation for vm_operations_struct.access for an iomem mapping. This callback is used by access_process_vm() when the vma is not page based.

unsigned long get_pfnblock_flags_mask(const struct page *page, unsigned long pfn, unsigned long mask)

Return the requested group of flags for the pageblock_nr_pages block of pages

Parameters

const struct page *page
The page within the block of interest
unsigned long pfn
The target page frame number
unsigned long mask
mask of bits that the caller is interested in

Return

pageblock_bits flags

void set_pfnblock_flags_mask(struct page *page, unsigned long flags, unsigned long pfn, unsigned long mask)

Set the requested group of flags for a pageblock_nr_pages block of pages

Parameters

struct page *page
The page within the block of interest
unsigned long flags
The flags to set
unsigned long pfn
The target page frame number
unsigned long mask
mask of bits that the caller is interested in
int split_free_page(struct page *free_page, unsigned int order, unsigned long split_pfn_offset)
  • split a free page at split_pfn_offset

Parameters

struct page *free_page
the original free page
unsigned int order
the order of the page
unsigned long split_pfn_offset
split offset within the page

Description

Return -ENOENT if the free page is changed, otherwise 0

It is used when the free page crosses two pageblocks with different migratetypes at split_pfn_offset within the page. The split free page will be put into separate migratetype lists afterwards. Otherwise, the function achieves nothing.

void __putback_isolated_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order, int mt)

Return a now-isolated page back where we got it

Parameters

struct page *page
Page that was isolated
unsigned int order
Order of the isolated page
int mt
The page’s pageblock’s migratetype

Description

This function is meant to return a page pulled from the free lists via __isolate_free_page back to the free lists they were pulled from.

void __free_pages(struct page *page, unsigned int order)

Free pages allocated with alloc_pages().

Parameters

struct page *page
The page pointer returned from alloc_pages().
unsigned int order
The order of the allocation.

Description

This function can free multi-page allocations that are not compound pages. It does not check that the order passed in matches that of the allocation, so it is easy to leak memory. Freeing more memory than was allocated will probably emit a warning.

If the last reference to this page is speculative, it will be released by put_page() which only frees the first page of a non-compound allocation. To prevent the remaining pages from being leaked, we free the subsequent pages here. If you want to use the page’s reference count to decide when to free the allocation, you should allocate a compound page, and use put_page() instead of __free_pages().

Context

May be called in interrupt context or while holding a normal spinlock, but not in NMI context or while holding a raw spinlock.

void * alloc_pages_exact(size_t size, gfp_t gfp_mask)

allocate an exact number physically-contiguous pages.

Parameters

size_t size
the number of bytes to allocate
gfp_t gfp_mask
GFP flags for the allocation, must not contain __GFP_COMP

Description

This function is similar to alloc_pages(), except that it allocates the minimum number of pages to satisfy the request. alloc_pages() can only allocate memory in power-of-two pages.

This function is also limited by MAX_ORDER.

Memory allocated by this function must be released by free_pages_exact().

Return

pointer to the allocated area or NULL in case of error.

void * alloc_pages_exact_nid(int nid, size_t size, gfp_t gfp_mask)

allocate an exact number of physically-contiguous pages on a node.

Parameters

int nid
the preferred node ID where memory should be allocated
size_t size
the number of bytes to allocate
gfp_t gfp_mask
GFP flags for the allocation, must not contain __GFP_COMP

Description

Like alloc_pages_exact(), but try to allocate on node nid first before falling back.

Return

pointer to the allocated area or NULL in case of error.

void free_pages_exact(void *virt, size_t size)

release memory allocated via alloc_pages_exact()

Parameters

void *virt
the value returned by alloc_pages_exact.
size_t size
size of allocation, same value as passed to alloc_pages_exact().

Description

Release the memory allocated by a previous call to alloc_pages_exact.

unsigned long nr_free_zone_pages(int offset)

count number of pages beyond high watermark

Parameters

int offset
The zone index of the highest zone

Description

nr_free_zone_pages() counts the number of pages which are beyond the high watermark within all zones at or below a given zone index. For each zone, the number of pages is calculated as:

nr_free_zone_pages = managed_pages - high_pages

Return

number of pages beyond high watermark.

unsigned long nr_free_buffer_pages(void)

count number of pages beyond high watermark

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

nr_free_buffer_pages() counts the number of pages which are beyond the high watermark within ZONE_DMA and ZONE_NORMAL.

Return

number of pages beyond high watermark within ZONE_DMA and ZONE_NORMAL.

int find_next_best_node(int node, nodemask_t *used_node_mask)

find the next node that should appear in a given node’s fallback list

Parameters

int node
node whose fallback list we’re appending
nodemask_t *used_node_mask
nodemask_t of already used nodes

Description

We use a number of factors to determine which is the next node that should appear on a given node’s fallback list. The node should not have appeared already in node’s fallback list, and it should be the next closest node according to the distance array (which contains arbitrary distance values from each node to each node in the system), and should also prefer nodes with no CPUs, since presumably they’ll have very little allocation pressure on them otherwise.

Return

node id of the found node or NUMA_NO_NODE if no node is found.

void get_pfn_range_for_nid(unsigned int nid, unsigned long *start_pfn, unsigned long *end_pfn)

Return the start and end page frames for a node

Parameters

unsigned int nid
The nid to return the range for. If MAX_NUMNODES, the min and max PFN are returned.
unsigned long *start_pfn
Passed by reference. On return, it will have the node start_pfn.
unsigned long *end_pfn
Passed by reference. On return, it will have the node end_pfn.

Description

It returns the start and end page frame of a node based on information provided by memblock_set_node(). If called for a node with no available memory, a warning is printed and the start and end PFNs will be 0.

unsigned long absent_pages_in_range(unsigned long start_pfn, unsigned long end_pfn)

Return number of page frames in holes within a range

Parameters

unsigned long start_pfn
The start PFN to start searching for holes
unsigned long end_pfn
The end PFN to stop searching for holes

Return

the number of pages frames in memory holes within a range.

unsigned long node_map_pfn_alignment(void)

determine the maximum internode alignment

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

This function should be called after node map is populated and sorted. It calculates the maximum power of two alignment which can distinguish all the nodes.

For example, if all nodes are 1GiB and aligned to 1GiB, the return value would indicate 1GiB alignment with (1 << (30 - PAGE_SHIFT)). If the nodes are shifted by 256MiB, 256MiB. Note that if only the last node is shifted, 1GiB is enough and this function will indicate so.

This is used to test whether pfn -> nid mapping of the chosen memory model has fine enough granularity to avoid incorrect mapping for the populated node map.

Return

the determined alignment in pfn’s. 0 if there is no alignment requirement (single node).

unsigned long find_min_pfn_with_active_regions(void)

Find the minimum PFN registered

Parameters

void
no arguments

Return

the minimum PFN based on information provided via memblock_set_node().

void free_area_init(unsigned long *max_zone_pfn)

Initialise all pg_data_t and zone data

Parameters

unsigned long *max_zone_pfn
an array of max PFNs for each zone

Description

This will call free_area_init_node() for each active node in the system. Using the page ranges provided by memblock_set_node(), the size of each zone in each node and their holes is calculated. If the maximum PFN between two adjacent zones match, it is assumed that the zone is empty. For example, if arch_max_dma_pfn == arch_max_dma32_pfn, it is assumed that arch_max_dma32_pfn has no pages. It is also assumed that a zone starts where the previous one ended. For example, ZONE_DMA32 starts at arch_max_dma_pfn.

void set_dma_reserve(unsigned long new_dma_reserve)

set the specified number of pages reserved in the first zone

Parameters

unsigned long new_dma_reserve
The number of pages to mark reserved

Description

The per-cpu batchsize and zone watermarks are determined by managed_pages. In the DMA zone, a significant percentage may be consumed by kernel image and other unfreeable allocations which can skew the watermarks badly. This function may optionally be used to account for unfreeable pages in the first zone (e.g., ZONE_DMA). The effect will be lower watermarks and smaller per-cpu batchsize.

void setup_per_zone_wmarks(void)

called when min_free_kbytes changes or when memory is hot-{added|removed}

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Ensures that the watermark[min,low,high] values for each zone are set correctly with respect to min_free_kbytes.

int alloc_contig_range(unsigned long start, unsigned long end, unsigned migratetype, gfp_t gfp_mask)
  • tries to allocate given range of pages

Parameters

unsigned long start
start PFN to allocate
unsigned long end
one-past-the-last PFN to allocate
unsigned migratetype
migratetype of the underlying pageblocks (either #MIGRATE_MOVABLE or #MIGRATE_CMA). All pageblocks in range must have the same migratetype and it must be either of the two.
gfp_t gfp_mask
GFP mask to use during compaction

Description

The PFN range does not have to be pageblock aligned. The PFN range must belong to a single zone.

The first thing this routine does is attempt to MIGRATE_ISOLATE all pageblocks in the range. Once isolated, the pageblocks should not be modified by others.

Return

zero on success or negative error code. On success all pages which PFN is in [start, end) are allocated for the caller and need to be freed with free_contig_range().

struct page * alloc_contig_pages(unsigned long nr_pages, gfp_t gfp_mask, int nid, nodemask_t *nodemask)
  • tries to find and allocate contiguous range of pages

Parameters

unsigned long nr_pages
Number of contiguous pages to allocate
gfp_t gfp_mask
GFP mask to limit search and used during compaction
int nid
Target node
nodemask_t *nodemask
Mask for other possible nodes

Description

This routine is a wrapper around alloc_contig_range(). It scans over zones on an applicable zonelist to find a contiguous pfn range which can then be tried for allocation with alloc_contig_range(). This routine is intended for allocation requests which can not be fulfilled with the buddy allocator.

The allocated memory is always aligned to a page boundary. If nr_pages is a power of two, then allocated range is also guaranteed to be aligned to same nr_pages (e.g. 1GB request would be aligned to 1GB).

Allocated pages can be freed with free_contig_range() or by manually calling __free_page() on each allocated page.

Return

pointer to contiguous pages on success, or NULL if not successful.

int numa_map_to_online_node(int node)

Find closest online node

Parameters

int node
Node id to start the search

Description

Lookup the next closest node by distance if nid is not online.

Return

this node if it is online, otherwise the closest node by distance

struct folio * vma_alloc_folio(gfp_t gfp, int order, struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr, bool hugepage)

Allocate a folio for a VMA.

Parameters

gfp_t gfp
GFP flags.
int order
Order of the folio.
struct vm_area_struct *vma
Pointer to VMA or NULL if not available.
unsigned long addr
Virtual address of the allocation. Must be inside vma.
bool hugepage
For hugepages try only the preferred node if possible.

Description

Allocate a folio for a specific address in vma, using the appropriate NUMA policy. When vma is not NULL the caller must hold the mmap_lock of the mm_struct of the VMA to prevent it from going away. Should be used for all allocations for folios that will be mapped into user space.

Return

The folio on success or NULL if allocation fails.

struct page * alloc_pages(gfp_t gfp, unsigned order)

Allocate pages.

Parameters

gfp_t gfp
GFP flags.
unsigned order
Power of two of number of pages to allocate.

Description

Allocate 1 << order contiguous pages. The physical address of the first page is naturally aligned (eg an order-3 allocation will be aligned to a multiple of 8 * PAGE_SIZE bytes). The NUMA policy of the current process is honoured when in process context.

Context

Can be called from any context, providing the appropriate GFP flags are used.

Return

The page on success or NULL if allocation fails.

int mpol_misplaced(struct page *page, struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr)

check whether current page node is valid in policy

Parameters

struct page *page
page to be checked
struct vm_area_struct *vma
vm area where page mapped
unsigned long addr
virtual address where page mapped

Description

Lookup current policy node id for vma,addr and “compare to” page’s node id. Policy determination “mimics” alloc_page_vma(). Called from fault path where we know the vma and faulting address.

Return

NUMA_NO_NODE if the page is in a node that is valid for this policy, or a suitable node ID to allocate a replacement page from.

void mpol_shared_policy_init(struct shared_policy *sp, struct mempolicy *mpol)

initialize shared policy for inode

Parameters

struct shared_policy *sp
pointer to inode shared policy
struct mempolicy *mpol
struct mempolicy to install

Description

Install non-NULL mpol in inode’s shared policy rb-tree. On entry, the current task has a reference on a non-NULL mpol. This must be released on exit. This is called at get_inode() calls and we can use GFP_KERNEL.

int mpol_parse_str(char *str, struct mempolicy **mpol)

parse string to mempolicy, for tmpfs mpol mount option.

Parameters

char *str
string containing mempolicy to parse
struct mempolicy **mpol
pointer to struct mempolicy pointer, returned on success.

Description

Format of input:
<mode>[=<flags>][:<nodelist>]

Return

0 on success, else 1

void mpol_to_str(char *buffer, int maxlen, struct mempolicy *pol)

format a mempolicy structure for printing

Parameters

char *buffer
to contain formatted mempolicy string
int maxlen
length of buffer
struct mempolicy *pol
pointer to mempolicy to be formatted

Description

Convert pol into a string. If buffer is too short, truncate the string. Recommend a maxlen of at least 32 for the longest mode, “interleave”, the longest flag, “relative”, and to display at least a few node ids.

struct folio

Represents a contiguous set of bytes.

Definition

struct folio {
  unsigned long flags;
  union {
    struct list_head lru;
    unsigned int mlock_count;
  };
  struct address_space *mapping;
  pgoff_t index;
  void *private;
  atomic_t _mapcount;
  atomic_t _refcount;
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG;
  unsigned long memcg_data;
#endif;
};

Members

flags
Identical to the page flags.
{unnamed_union}
anonymous
lru
Least Recently Used list; tracks how recently this folio was used.
mlock_count
Number of times this folio has been pinned by mlock().
mapping
The file this page belongs to, or refers to the anon_vma for anonymous memory.
index
Offset within the file, in units of pages. For anonymous memory, this is the index from the beginning of the mmap.
private
Filesystem per-folio data (see folio_attach_private()). Used for swp_entry_t if folio_test_swapcache().
_mapcount
Do not access this member directly. Use folio_mapcount() to find out how many times this folio is mapped by userspace.
_refcount
Do not access this member directly. Use folio_ref_count() to find how many references there are to this folio.
memcg_data
Memory Control Group data.

Description

A folio is a physically, virtually and logically contiguous set of bytes. It is a power-of-two in size, and it is aligned to that same power-of-two. It is at least as large as PAGE_SIZE. If it is in the page cache, it is at a file offset which is a multiple of that power-of-two. It may be mapped into userspace at an address which is at an arbitrary page offset, but its kernel virtual address is aligned to its size.

typedef vm_fault_t

Return type for page fault handlers.

Description

Page fault handlers return a bitmask of VM_FAULT values.

enum vm_fault_reason

Page fault handlers return a bitmask of these values to tell the core VM what happened when handling the fault. Used to decide whether a process gets delivered SIGBUS or just gets major/minor fault counters bumped up.

Constants

VM_FAULT_OOM
Out Of Memory
VM_FAULT_SIGBUS
Bad access
VM_FAULT_MAJOR
Page read from storage
VM_FAULT_WRITE
Special case for get_user_pages
VM_FAULT_HWPOISON
Hit poisoned small page
VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE
Hit poisoned large page. Index encoded in upper bits
VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV
segmentation fault
VM_FAULT_NOPAGE
->fault installed the pte, not return page
VM_FAULT_LOCKED
->fault locked the returned page
VM_FAULT_RETRY
->fault blocked, must retry
VM_FAULT_FALLBACK
huge page fault failed, fall back to small
VM_FAULT_DONE_COW
->fault has fully handled COW
VM_FAULT_NEEDDSYNC
->fault did not modify page tables and needs fsync() to complete (for synchronous page faults in DAX)
VM_FAULT_COMPLETED
->fault completed, meanwhile mmap lock released
VM_FAULT_HINDEX_MASK
mask HINDEX value
enum fault_flag

Fault flag definitions.

Constants

FAULT_FLAG_WRITE
Fault was a write fault.
FAULT_FLAG_MKWRITE
Fault was mkwrite of existing PTE.
FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY
Allow to retry the fault if blocked.
FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT
Don’t drop mmap_lock and wait when retrying.
FAULT_FLAG_KILLABLE
The fault task is in SIGKILL killable region.
FAULT_FLAG_TRIED
The fault has been tried once.
FAULT_FLAG_USER
The fault originated in userspace.
FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE
The fault is not for current task/mm.
FAULT_FLAG_INSTRUCTION
The fault was during an instruction fetch.
FAULT_FLAG_INTERRUPTIBLE
The fault can be interrupted by non-fatal signals.
FAULT_FLAG_UNSHARE
The fault is an unsharing request to unshare (and mark exclusive) a possibly shared anonymous page that is mapped R/O.
FAULT_FLAG_ORIG_PTE_VALID
whether the fault has vmf->orig_pte cached. We should only access orig_pte if this flag set.

Description

About FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY and FAULT_FLAG_TRIED: we can specify whether we would allow page faults to retry by specifying these two fault flags correctly. Currently there can be three legal combinations:

  1. ALLOW_RETRY and !TRIED: this means the page fault allows retry, and
    this is the first try
  2. ALLOW_RETRY and TRIED: this means the page fault allows retry, and
    we’ve already tried at least once
  3. !ALLOW_RETRY and !TRIED: this means the page fault does not allow retry

The unlisted combination (!ALLOW_RETRY && TRIED) is illegal and should never be used. Note that page faults can be allowed to retry for multiple times, in which case we’ll have an initial fault with flags (a) then later on continuous faults with flags (b). We should always try to detect pending signals before a retry to make sure the continuous page faults can still be interrupted if necessary.

The combination FAULT_FLAG_WRITE|FAULT_FLAG_UNSHARE is illegal. FAULT_FLAG_UNSHARE is ignored and treated like an ordinary read fault when no existing R/O-mapped anonymous page is encountered.

int folio_is_file_lru(struct folio *folio)

Should the folio be on a file LRU or anon LRU?

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to test.

Description

We would like to get this info without a page flag, but the state needs to survive until the folio is last deleted from the LRU, which could be as far down as __page_cache_release.

Return

An integer (not a boolean!) used to sort a folio onto the right LRU list and to account folios correctly. 1 if folio is a regular filesystem backed page cache folio or a lazily freed anonymous folio (e.g. via MADV_FREE). 0 if folio is a normal anonymous folio, a tmpfs folio or otherwise ram or swap backed folio.

void __folio_clear_lru_flags(struct folio *folio)

Clear page lru flags before releasing a page.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio that was on lru and now has a zero reference.
enum lru_list folio_lru_list(struct folio *folio)

Which LRU list should a folio be on?

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to test.

Return

The LRU list a folio should be on, as an index into the array of LRU lists.

page_folio(p)

Converts from page to folio.

Parameters

p
The page.

Description

Every page is part of a folio. This function cannot be called on a NULL pointer.

Context

No reference, nor lock is required on page. If the caller does not hold a reference, this call may race with a folio split, so it should re-check the folio still contains this page after gaining a reference on the folio.

Return

The folio which contains this page.

folio_page(folio, n)

Return a page from a folio.

Parameters

folio
The folio.
n
The page number to return.

Description

n is relative to the start of the folio. This function does not check that the page number lies within folio; the caller is presumed to have a reference to the page.

bool folio_test_uptodate(struct folio *folio)

Is this folio up to date?

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

The uptodate flag is set on a folio when every byte in the folio is at least as new as the corresponding bytes on storage. Anonymous and CoW folios are always uptodate. If the folio is not uptodate, some of the bytes in it may be; see the is_partially_uptodate() address_space operation.

bool folio_test_large(struct folio *folio)

Does this folio contain more than one page?

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio to test.

Return

True if the folio is larger than one page.

int page_has_private(struct page *page)

Determine if page has private stuff

Parameters

struct page *page
The page to be checked

Description

Determine if a page has private stuff, indicating that release routines should be invoked upon it.

bool fault_flag_allow_retry_first(enum fault_flag flags)

check ALLOW_RETRY the first time

Parameters

enum fault_flag flags
Fault flags.

Description

This is mostly used for places where we want to try to avoid taking the mmap_lock for too long a time when waiting for another condition to change, in which case we can try to be polite to release the mmap_lock in the first round to avoid potential starvation of other processes that would also want the mmap_lock.

Return

true if the page fault allows retry and this is the first attempt of the fault handling; false otherwise.

unsigned int folio_order(struct folio *folio)

The allocation order of a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

A folio is composed of 2^order pages. See get_order() for the definition of order.

Return

The order of the folio.

unsigned int thp_order(struct page *page)

Order of a transparent huge page.

Parameters

struct page *page
Head page of a transparent huge page.
int thp_nr_pages(struct page *page)

The number of regular pages in this huge page.

Parameters

struct page *page
The head page of a huge page.
unsigned long thp_size(struct page *page)

Size of a transparent huge page.

Parameters

struct page *page
Head page of a transparent huge page.

Return

Number of bytes in this page.

void folio_get(struct folio *folio)

Increment the reference count on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Context

May be called in any context, as long as you know that you have a refcount on the folio. If you do not already have one, folio_try_get() may be the right interface for you to use.

void folio_put(struct folio *folio)

Decrement the reference count on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

If the folio’s reference count reaches zero, the memory will be released back to the page allocator and may be used by another allocation immediately. Do not access the memory or the struct folio after calling folio_put() unless you can be sure that it wasn’t the last reference.

Context

May be called in process or interrupt context, but not in NMI context. May be called while holding a spinlock.

void folio_put_refs(struct folio *folio, int refs)

Reduce the reference count on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.
int refs
The amount to subtract from the folio’s reference count.

Description

If the folio’s reference count reaches zero, the memory will be released back to the page allocator and may be used by another allocation immediately. Do not access the memory or the struct folio after calling folio_put_refs() unless you can be sure that these weren’t the last references.

Context

May be called in process or interrupt context, but not in NMI context. May be called while holding a spinlock.

void folios_put(struct folio **folios, unsigned int nr)

Decrement the reference count on an array of folios.

Parameters

struct folio **folios
The folios.
unsigned int nr
How many folios there are.

Description

Like folio_put(), but for an array of folios. This is more efficient than writing the loop yourself as it will optimise the locks which need to be taken if the folios are freed.

Context

May be called in process or interrupt context, but not in NMI context. May be called while holding a spinlock.

unsigned long folio_pfn(struct folio *folio)

Return the Page Frame Number of a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

A folio may contain multiple pages. The pages have consecutive Page Frame Numbers.

Return

The Page Frame Number of the first page in the folio.

bool folio_maybe_dma_pinned(struct folio *folio)

Report if a folio may be pinned for DMA.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

This function checks if a folio has been pinned via a call to a function in the pin_user_pages() family.

For small folios, the return value is partially fuzzy: false is not fuzzy, because it means “definitely not pinned for DMA”, but true means “probably pinned for DMA, but possibly a false positive due to having at least GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS worth of normal folio references”.

False positives are OK, because: a) it’s unlikely for a folio to get that many refcounts, and b) all the callers of this routine are expected to be able to deal gracefully with a false positive.

For large folios, the result will be exactly correct. That’s because we have more tracking data available: the compound_pincount is used instead of the GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS scheme.

For more information, please see pin_user_pages() and related calls.

Return

True, if it is likely that the page has been “dma-pinned”. False, if the page is definitely not dma-pinned.

long folio_nr_pages(struct folio *folio)

The number of pages in the folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Return

A positive power of two.

struct folio * folio_next(struct folio *folio)

Move to the next physical folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio we’re currently operating on.

Description

If you have physically contiguous memory which may span more than one folio (eg a struct bio_vec), use this function to move from one folio to the next. Do not use it if the memory is only virtually contiguous as the folios are almost certainly not adjacent to each other. This is the folio equivalent to writing page++.

Context

We assume that the folios are refcounted and/or locked at a higher level and do not adjust the reference counts.

Return

The next struct folio.

unsigned int folio_shift(struct folio *folio)

The size of the memory described by this folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

A folio represents a number of bytes which is a power-of-two in size. This function tells you which power-of-two the folio is. See also folio_size() and folio_order().

Context

The caller should have a reference on the folio to prevent it from being split. It is not necessary for the folio to be locked.

Return

The base-2 logarithm of the size of this folio.

size_t folio_size(struct folio *folio)

The number of bytes in a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Context

The caller should have a reference on the folio to prevent it from being split. It is not necessary for the folio to be locked.

Return

The number of bytes in this folio.

struct vm_area_struct * find_vma_intersection(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long start_addr, unsigned long end_addr)

Look up the first VMA which intersects the interval

Parameters

struct mm_struct *mm
The process address space.
unsigned long start_addr
The inclusive start user address.
unsigned long end_addr
The exclusive end user address.

Return

The first VMA within the provided range, NULL otherwise. Assumes start_addr < end_addr.

struct vm_area_struct * vma_lookup(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr)

Find a VMA at a specific address

Parameters

struct mm_struct *mm
The process address space.
unsigned long addr
The user address.

Return

The vm_area_struct at the given address, NULL otherwise.

bool vma_is_special_huge(const struct vm_area_struct *vma)

Are transhuge page-table entries considered special?

Parameters

const struct vm_area_struct *vma
Pointer to the struct vm_area_struct to consider

Description

Whether transhuge page-table entries are considered “special” following the definition in vm_normal_page().

Return

true if transhuge page-table entries should be considered special, false otherwise.

int seal_check_future_write(int seals, struct vm_area_struct *vma)

Check for F_SEAL_FUTURE_WRITE flag and handle it

Parameters

int seals
the seals to check
struct vm_area_struct *vma
the vma to operate on

Description

Check whether F_SEAL_FUTURE_WRITE is set; if so, do proper check/handling on the vma flags. Return 0 if check pass, or <0 for errors.

int folio_ref_count(const struct folio *folio)

The reference count on this folio.

Parameters

const struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

The refcount is usually incremented by calls to folio_get() and decremented by calls to folio_put(). Some typical users of the folio refcount:

  • Each reference from a page table
  • The page cache
  • Filesystem private data
  • The LRU list
  • Pipes
  • Direct IO which references this page in the process address space

Return

The number of references to this folio.

bool folio_try_get(struct folio *folio)

Attempt to increase the refcount on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

If you do not already have a reference to a folio, you can attempt to get one using this function. It may fail if, for example, the folio has been freed since you found a pointer to it, or it is frozen for the purposes of splitting or migration.

Return

True if the reference count was successfully incremented.

bool folio_try_get_rcu(struct folio *folio)

Attempt to increase the refcount on a folio.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

This is a version of folio_try_get() optimised for non-SMP kernels. If you are still holding the rcu_read_lock() after looking up the page and know that the page cannot have its refcount decreased to zero in interrupt context, you can use this instead of folio_try_get().

Example users include get_user_pages_fast() (as pages are not unmapped from interrupt context) and the page cache lookups (as pages are not truncated from interrupt context). We also know that pages are not frozen in interrupt context for the purposes of splitting or migration.

You can also use this function if you’re holding a lock that prevents pages being frozen & removed; eg the i_pages lock for the page cache or the mmap_sem or page table lock for page tables. In this case, it will always succeed, and you could have used a plain folio_get(), but it’s sometimes more convenient to have a common function called from both locked and RCU-protected contexts.

Return

True if the reference count was successfully incremented.

int is_highmem(struct zone *zone)

helper function to quickly check if a struct zone is a highmem zone or not. This is an attempt to keep references to ZONE_{DMA/NORMAL/HIGHMEM/etc} in general code to a minimum.

Parameters

struct zone *zone
pointer to struct zone variable

Return

1 for a highmem zone, 0 otherwise

for_each_online_pgdat(pgdat)

helper macro to iterate over all online nodes

Parameters

pgdat
pointer to a pg_data_t variable
for_each_zone(zone)

helper macro to iterate over all memory zones

Parameters

zone
pointer to struct zone variable

Description

The user only needs to declare the zone variable, for_each_zone fills it in.

struct zoneref * next_zones_zonelist(struct zoneref *z, enum zone_type highest_zoneidx, nodemask_t *nodes)

Returns the next zone at or below highest_zoneidx within the allowed nodemask using a cursor within a zonelist as a starting point

Parameters

struct zoneref *z
The cursor used as a starting point for the search
enum zone_type highest_zoneidx
The zone index of the highest zone to return
nodemask_t *nodes
An optional nodemask to filter the zonelist with

Description

This function returns the next zone at or below a given zone index that is within the allowed nodemask using a cursor as the starting point for the search. The zoneref returned is a cursor that represents the current zone being examined. It should be advanced by one before calling next_zones_zonelist again.

Return

the next zone at or below highest_zoneidx within the allowed nodemask using a cursor within a zonelist as a starting point

struct zoneref * first_zones_zonelist(struct zonelist *zonelist, enum zone_type highest_zoneidx, nodemask_t *nodes)

Returns the first zone at or below highest_zoneidx within the allowed nodemask in a zonelist

Parameters

struct zonelist *zonelist
The zonelist to search for a suitable zone
enum zone_type highest_zoneidx
The zone index of the highest zone to return
nodemask_t *nodes
An optional nodemask to filter the zonelist with

Description

This function returns the first zone at or below a given zone index that is within the allowed nodemask. The zoneref returned is a cursor that can be used to iterate the zonelist with next_zones_zonelist by advancing it by one before calling.

When no eligible zone is found, zoneref->zone is NULL (zoneref itself is never NULL). This may happen either genuinely, or due to concurrent nodemask update due to cpuset modification.

Return

Zoneref pointer for the first suitable zone found

for_each_zone_zonelist_nodemask(zone, z, zlist, highidx, nodemask)

helper macro to iterate over valid zones in a zonelist at or below a given zone index and within a nodemask

Parameters

zone
The current zone in the iterator
z
The current pointer within zonelist->_zonerefs being iterated
zlist
The zonelist being iterated
highidx
The zone index of the highest zone to return
nodemask
Nodemask allowed by the allocator

Description

This iterator iterates though all zones at or below a given zone index and within a given nodemask

for_each_zone_zonelist(zone, z, zlist, highidx)

helper macro to iterate over valid zones in a zonelist at or below a given zone index

Parameters

zone
The current zone in the iterator
z
The current pointer within zonelist->zones being iterated
zlist
The zonelist being iterated
highidx
The zone index of the highest zone to return

Description

This iterator iterates though all zones at or below a given zone index.

int pfn_valid(unsigned long pfn)

check if there is a valid memory map entry for a PFN

Parameters

unsigned long pfn
the page frame number to check

Description

Check if there is a valid memory map entry aka struct page for the pfn. Note, that availability of the memory map entry does not imply that there is actual usable memory at that pfn. The struct page may represent a hole or an unusable page frame.

Return

1 for PFNs that have memory map entries and 0 otherwise

struct address_space * folio_mapping(struct folio *folio)

Find the mapping where this folio is stored.

Parameters

struct folio *folio
The folio.

Description

For folios which are in the page cache, return the mapping that this page belongs to. Folios in the swap cache return the swap mapping this page is stored in (which is different from the mapping for the swap file or swap device where the data is stored).

You can call this for folios which aren’t in the swap cache or page cache and it will return NULL.