Concurrency Managed Workqueue (cmwq)

Date:September, 2010
Author:Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
Author:Florian Mickler <florian@mickler.org>

Introduction

There are many cases where an asynchronous process execution context is needed and the workqueue (wq) API is the most commonly used mechanism for such cases.

When such an asynchronous execution context is needed, a work item describing which function to execute is put on a queue. An independent thread serves as the asynchronous execution context. The queue is called workqueue and the thread is called worker.

While there are work items on the workqueue the worker executes the functions associated with the work items one after the other. When there is no work item left on the workqueue the worker becomes idle. When a new work item gets queued, the worker begins executing again.

Why cmwq?

In the original wq implementation, a multi threaded (MT) wq had one worker thread per CPU and a single threaded (ST) wq had one worker thread system-wide. A single MT wq needed to keep around the same number of workers as the number of CPUs. The kernel grew a lot of MT wq users over the years and with the number of CPU cores continuously rising, some systems saturated the default 32k PID space just booting up.

Although MT wq wasted a lot of resource, the level of concurrency provided was unsatisfactory. The limitation was common to both ST and MT wq albeit less severe on MT. Each wq maintained its own separate worker pool. An MT wq could provide only one execution context per CPU while an ST wq one for the whole system. Work items had to compete for those very limited execution contexts leading to various problems including proneness to deadlocks around the single execution context.

The tension between the provided level of concurrency and resource usage also forced its users to make unnecessary tradeoffs like libata choosing to use ST wq for polling PIOs and accepting an unnecessary limitation that no two polling PIOs can progress at the same time. As MT wq don’t provide much better concurrency, users which require higher level of concurrency, like async or fscache, had to implement their own thread pool.

Concurrency Managed Workqueue (cmwq) is a reimplementation of wq with focus on the following goals.

  • Maintain compatibility with the original workqueue API.
  • Use per-CPU unified worker pools shared by all wq to provide flexible level of concurrency on demand without wasting a lot of resource.
  • Automatically regulate worker pool and level of concurrency so that the API users don’t need to worry about such details.

The Design

In order to ease the asynchronous execution of functions a new abstraction, the work item, is introduced.

A work item is a simple struct that holds a pointer to the function that is to be executed asynchronously. Whenever a driver or subsystem wants a function to be executed asynchronously it has to set up a work item pointing to that function and queue that work item on a workqueue.

Special purpose threads, called worker threads, execute the functions off of the queue, one after the other. If no work is queued, the worker threads become idle. These worker threads are managed in so called worker-pools.

The cmwq design differentiates between the user-facing workqueues that subsystems and drivers queue work items on and the backend mechanism which manages worker-pools and processes the queued work items.

There are two worker-pools, one for normal work items and the other for high priority ones, for each possible CPU and some extra worker-pools to serve work items queued on unbound workqueues - the number of these backing pools is dynamic.

Subsystems and drivers can create and queue work items through special workqueue API functions as they see fit. They can influence some aspects of the way the work items are executed by setting flags on the workqueue they are putting the work item on. These flags include things like CPU locality, concurrency limits, priority and more. To get a detailed overview refer to the API description of alloc_workqueue() below.

When a work item is queued to a workqueue, the target worker-pool is determined according to the queue parameters and workqueue attributes and appended on the shared worklist of the worker-pool. For example, unless specifically overridden, a work item of a bound workqueue will be queued on the worklist of either normal or highpri worker-pool that is associated to the CPU the issuer is running on.

For any worker pool implementation, managing the concurrency level (how many execution contexts are active) is an important issue. cmwq tries to keep the concurrency at a minimal but sufficient level. Minimal to save resources and sufficient in that the system is used at its full capacity.

Each worker-pool bound to an actual CPU implements concurrency management by hooking into the scheduler. The worker-pool is notified whenever an active worker wakes up or sleeps and keeps track of the number of the currently runnable workers. Generally, work items are not expected to hog a CPU and consume many cycles. That means maintaining just enough concurrency to prevent work processing from stalling should be optimal. As long as there are one or more runnable workers on the CPU, the worker-pool doesn’t start execution of a new work, but, when the last running worker goes to sleep, it immediately schedules a new worker so that the CPU doesn’t sit idle while there are pending work items. This allows using a minimal number of workers without losing execution bandwidth.

Keeping idle workers around doesn’t cost other than the memory space for kthreads, so cmwq holds onto idle ones for a while before killing them.

For unbound workqueues, the number of backing pools is dynamic. Unbound workqueue can be assigned custom attributes using apply_workqueue_attrs() and workqueue will automatically create backing worker pools matching the attributes. The responsibility of regulating concurrency level is on the users. There is also a flag to mark a bound wq to ignore the concurrency management. Please refer to the API section for details.

Forward progress guarantee relies on that workers can be created when more execution contexts are necessary, which in turn is guaranteed through the use of rescue workers. All work items which might be used on code paths that handle memory reclaim are required to be queued on wq’s that have a rescue-worker reserved for execution under memory pressure. Else it is possible that the worker-pool deadlocks waiting for execution contexts to free up.

Application Programming Interface (API)

alloc_workqueue() allocates a wq. The original create_*workqueue() functions are deprecated and scheduled for removal. alloc_workqueue() takes three arguments - @name, @flags and @max_active. @name is the name of the wq and also used as the name of the rescuer thread if there is one.

A wq no longer manages execution resources but serves as a domain for forward progress guarantee, flush and work item attributes. @flags and @max_active control how work items are assigned execution resources, scheduled and executed.

flags

WQ_UNBOUND

Work items queued to an unbound wq are served by the special worker-pools which host workers which are not bound to any specific CPU. This makes the wq behave as a simple execution context provider without concurrency management. The unbound worker-pools try to start execution of work items as soon as possible. Unbound wq sacrifices locality but is useful for the following cases.

  • Wide fluctuation in the concurrency level requirement is expected and using bound wq may end up creating large number of mostly unused workers across different CPUs as the issuer hops through different CPUs.
  • Long running CPU intensive workloads which can be better managed by the system scheduler.
WQ_FREEZABLE
A freezable wq participates in the freeze phase of the system suspend operations. Work items on the wq are drained and no new work item starts execution until thawed.
WQ_MEM_RECLAIM
All wq which might be used in the memory reclaim paths MUST have this flag set. The wq is guaranteed to have at least one execution context regardless of memory pressure.
WQ_HIGHPRI

Work items of a highpri wq are queued to the highpri worker-pool of the target cpu. Highpri worker-pools are served by worker threads with elevated nice level.

Note that normal and highpri worker-pools don’t interact with each other. Each maintains its separate pool of workers and implements concurrency management among its workers.

WQ_CPU_INTENSIVE

Work items of a CPU intensive wq do not contribute to the concurrency level. In other words, runnable CPU intensive work items will not prevent other work items in the same worker-pool from starting execution. This is useful for bound work items which are expected to hog CPU cycles so that their execution is regulated by the system scheduler.

Although CPU intensive work items don’t contribute to the concurrency level, start of their executions is still regulated by the concurrency management and runnable non-CPU-intensive work items can delay execution of CPU intensive work items.

This flag is meaningless for unbound wq.

Note that the flag WQ_NON_REENTRANT no longer exists as all workqueues are now non-reentrant - any work item is guaranteed to be executed by at most one worker system-wide at any given time.

max_active

@max_active determines the maximum number of execution contexts per CPU which can be assigned to the work items of a wq. For example, with @max_active of 16, at most 16 work items of the wq can be executing at the same time per CPU.

Currently, for a bound wq, the maximum limit for @max_active is 512 and the default value used when 0 is specified is 256. For an unbound wq, the limit is higher of 512 and 4 * num_possible_cpus(). These values are chosen sufficiently high such that they are not the limiting factor while providing protection in runaway cases.

The number of active work items of a wq is usually regulated by the users of the wq, more specifically, by how many work items the users may queue at the same time. Unless there is a specific need for throttling the number of active work items, specifying ‘0’ is recommended.

Some users depend on the strict execution ordering of ST wq. The combination of @max_active of 1 and WQ_UNBOUND used to achieve this behavior. Work items on such wq were always queued to the unbound worker-pools and only one work item could be active at any given time thus achieving the same ordering property as ST wq.

In the current implementation the above configuration only guarantees ST behavior within a given NUMA node. Instead alloc_ordered_queue() should be used to achieve system-wide ST behavior.

Example Execution Scenarios

The following example execution scenarios try to illustrate how cmwq behave under different configurations.

Work items w0, w1, w2 are queued to a bound wq q0 on the same CPU. w0 burns CPU for 5ms then sleeps for 10ms then burns CPU for 5ms again before finishing. w1 and w2 burn CPU for 5ms then sleep for 10ms.

Ignoring all other tasks, works and processing overhead, and assuming simple FIFO scheduling, the following is one highly simplified version of possible sequences of events with the original wq.

TIME IN MSECS  EVENT
0              w0 starts and burns CPU
5              w0 sleeps
15             w0 wakes up and burns CPU
20             w0 finishes
20             w1 starts and burns CPU
25             w1 sleeps
35             w1 wakes up and finishes
35             w2 starts and burns CPU
40             w2 sleeps
50             w2 wakes up and finishes

And with cmwq with @max_active >= 3,

TIME IN MSECS  EVENT
0              w0 starts and burns CPU
5              w0 sleeps
5              w1 starts and burns CPU
10             w1 sleeps
10             w2 starts and burns CPU
15             w2 sleeps
15             w0 wakes up and burns CPU
20             w0 finishes
20             w1 wakes up and finishes
25             w2 wakes up and finishes

If @max_active == 2,

TIME IN MSECS  EVENT
0              w0 starts and burns CPU
5              w0 sleeps
5              w1 starts and burns CPU
10             w1 sleeps
15             w0 wakes up and burns CPU
20             w0 finishes
20             w1 wakes up and finishes
20             w2 starts and burns CPU
25             w2 sleeps
35             w2 wakes up and finishes

Now, let’s assume w1 and w2 are queued to a different wq q1 which has WQ_CPU_INTENSIVE set,

TIME IN MSECS  EVENT
0              w0 starts and burns CPU
5              w0 sleeps
5              w1 and w2 start and burn CPU
10             w1 sleeps
15             w2 sleeps
15             w0 wakes up and burns CPU
20             w0 finishes
20             w1 wakes up and finishes
25             w2 wakes up and finishes

Guidelines

  • Do not forget to use WQ_MEM_RECLAIM if a wq may process work items which are used during memory reclaim. Each wq with WQ_MEM_RECLAIM set has an execution context reserved for it. If there is dependency among multiple work items used during memory reclaim, they should be queued to separate wq each with WQ_MEM_RECLAIM.
  • Unless strict ordering is required, there is no need to use ST wq.
  • Unless there is a specific need, using 0 for @max_active is recommended. In most use cases, concurrency level usually stays well under the default limit.
  • A wq serves as a domain for forward progress guarantee (WQ_MEM_RECLAIM, flush and work item attributes. Work items which are not involved in memory reclaim and don’t need to be flushed as a part of a group of work items, and don’t require any special attribute, can use one of the system wq. There is no difference in execution characteristics between using a dedicated wq and a system wq.
  • Unless work items are expected to consume a huge amount of CPU cycles, using a bound wq is usually beneficial due to the increased level of locality in wq operations and work item execution.

Debugging

Because the work functions are executed by generic worker threads there are a few tricks needed to shed some light on misbehaving workqueue users.

Worker threads show up in the process list as:

root      5671  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    12:07   0:00 [kworker/0:1]
root      5672  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    12:07   0:00 [kworker/1:2]
root      5673  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    12:12   0:00 [kworker/0:0]
root      5674  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    12:13   0:00 [kworker/1:0]

If kworkers are going crazy (using too much cpu), there are two types of possible problems:

  1. Something being scheduled in rapid succession
  2. A single work item that consumes lots of cpu cycles

The first one can be tracked using tracing:

$ echo workqueue:workqueue_queue_work > /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/set_event
$ cat /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe > out.txt
(wait a few secs)
^C

If something is busy looping on work queueing, it would be dominating the output and the offender can be determined with the work item function.

For the second type of problems it should be possible to just check the stack trace of the offending worker thread.

$ cat /proc/THE_OFFENDING_KWORKER/stack

The work item’s function should be trivially visible in the stack trace.

Kernel Inline Documentations Reference

struct workqueue_attrs

A struct for workqueue attributes.

Definition

struct workqueue_attrs {
  int nice;
  cpumask_var_t cpumask;
  bool no_numa;
};

Members

nice
nice level
cpumask
allowed CPUs
no_numa

disable NUMA affinity

Unlike other fields, no_numa isn’t a property of a worker_pool. It only modifies how apply_workqueue_attrs() select pools and thus doesn’t participate in pool hash calculations or equality comparisons.

Description

This can be used to change attributes of an unbound workqueue.

work_pending(work)

Find out whether a work item is currently pending

Parameters

work
The work item in question
delayed_work_pending(w)

Find out whether a delayable work item is currently pending

Parameters

w
The work item in question
struct workqueue_struct * alloc_workqueue(const char *fmt, unsigned int flags, int max_active, ...)

allocate a workqueue

Parameters

const char *fmt
printf format for the name of the workqueue
unsigned int flags
WQ_* flags
int max_active
max in-flight work items, 0 for default remaining args: args for fmt
...
variable arguments

Description

Allocate a workqueue with the specified parameters. For detailed information on WQ_* flags, please refer to Concurrency Managed Workqueue (cmwq).

Return

Pointer to the allocated workqueue on success, NULL on failure.

alloc_ordered_workqueue(fmt, flags, args…)

allocate an ordered workqueue

Parameters

fmt
printf format for the name of the workqueue
flags
WQ_* flags (only WQ_FREEZABLE and WQ_MEM_RECLAIM are meaningful)
args...
args for fmt

Description

Allocate an ordered workqueue. An ordered workqueue executes at most one work item at any given time in the queued order. They are implemented as unbound workqueues with max_active of one.

Return

Pointer to the allocated workqueue on success, NULL on failure.

bool queue_work(struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct work_struct *work)

queue work on a workqueue

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct work_struct *work
work to queue

Description

Returns false if work was already on a queue, true otherwise.

We queue the work to the CPU on which it was submitted, but if the CPU dies it can be processed by another CPU.

Memory-ordering properties: If it returns true, guarantees that all stores preceding the call to queue_work() in the program order will be visible from the CPU which will execute work by the time such work executes, e.g.,

{ x is initially 0 }

CPU0 CPU1

WRITE_ONCE(x, 1); [ work is being executed ] r0 = queue_work(wq, work); r1 = READ_ONCE(x);

Forbids: r0 == true && r1 == 0

bool queue_delayed_work(struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

queue work on a workqueue after delay

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct delayed_work *dwork
delayable work to queue
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait before queueing

Description

Equivalent to queue_delayed_work_on() but tries to use the local CPU.

bool mod_delayed_work(struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

modify delay of or queue a delayed work

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct delayed_work *dwork
work to queue
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait before queueing

Description

mod_delayed_work_on() on local CPU.

bool schedule_work_on(int cpu, struct work_struct *work)

put work task on a specific cpu

Parameters

int cpu
cpu to put the work task on
struct work_struct *work
job to be done

Description

This puts a job on a specific cpu

bool schedule_work(struct work_struct *work)

put work task in global workqueue

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
job to be done

Description

Returns false if work was already on the kernel-global workqueue and true otherwise.

This puts a job in the kernel-global workqueue if it was not already queued and leaves it in the same position on the kernel-global workqueue otherwise.

Shares the same memory-ordering properties of queue_work(), cf. the DocBook header of queue_work().

void flush_scheduled_work(void)

ensure that any scheduled work has run to completion.

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Forces execution of the kernel-global workqueue and blocks until its completion.

Think twice before calling this function! It’s very easy to get into trouble if you don’t take great care. Either of the following situations will lead to deadlock:

One of the work items currently on the workqueue needs to acquire a lock held by your code or its caller.

Your code is running in the context of a work routine.

They will be detected by lockdep when they occur, but the first might not occur very often. It depends on what work items are on the workqueue and what locks they need, which you have no control over.

In most situations flushing the entire workqueue is overkill; you merely need to know that a particular work item isn’t queued and isn’t running. In such cases you should use cancel_delayed_work_sync() or cancel_work_sync() instead.

bool schedule_delayed_work_on(int cpu, struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

queue work in global workqueue on CPU after delay

Parameters

int cpu
cpu to use
struct delayed_work *dwork
job to be done
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait

Description

After waiting for a given time this puts a job in the kernel-global workqueue on the specified CPU.

bool schedule_delayed_work(struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

put work task in global workqueue after delay

Parameters

struct delayed_work *dwork
job to be done
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait or 0 for immediate execution

Description

After waiting for a given time this puts a job in the kernel-global workqueue.

for_each_pool(pool, pi)

iterate through all worker_pools in the system

Parameters

pool
iteration cursor
pi
integer used for iteration

Description

This must be called either with wq_pool_mutex held or RCU read locked. If the pool needs to be used beyond the locking in effect, the caller is responsible for guaranteeing that the pool stays online.

The if/else clause exists only for the lockdep assertion and can be ignored.

for_each_pool_worker(worker, pool)

iterate through all workers of a worker_pool

Parameters

worker
iteration cursor
pool
worker_pool to iterate workers of

Description

This must be called with wq_pool_attach_mutex.

The if/else clause exists only for the lockdep assertion and can be ignored.

for_each_pwq(pwq, wq)

iterate through all pool_workqueues of the specified workqueue

Parameters

pwq
iteration cursor
wq
the target workqueue

Description

This must be called either with wq->mutex held or RCU read locked. If the pwq needs to be used beyond the locking in effect, the caller is responsible for guaranteeing that the pwq stays online.

The if/else clause exists only for the lockdep assertion and can be ignored.

int worker_pool_assign_id(struct worker_pool *pool)

allocate ID and assign it to pool

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
the pool pointer of interest

Description

Returns 0 if ID in [0, WORK_OFFQ_POOL_NONE) is allocated and assigned successfully, -errno on failure.

struct pool_workqueue * unbound_pwq_by_node(struct workqueue_struct *wq, int node)

return the unbound pool_workqueue for the given node

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
the target workqueue
int node
the node ID

Description

This must be called with any of wq_pool_mutex, wq->mutex or RCU read locked. If the pwq needs to be used beyond the locking in effect, the caller is responsible for guaranteeing that the pwq stays online.

Return

The unbound pool_workqueue for node.

struct worker_pool * get_work_pool(struct work_struct *work)

return the worker_pool a given work was associated with

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
the work item of interest

Description

Pools are created and destroyed under wq_pool_mutex, and allows read access under RCU read lock. As such, this function should be called under wq_pool_mutex or inside of a rcu_read_lock() region.

All fields of the returned pool are accessible as long as the above mentioned locking is in effect. If the returned pool needs to be used beyond the critical section, the caller is responsible for ensuring the returned pool is and stays online.

Return

The worker_pool work was last associated with. NULL if none.

int get_work_pool_id(struct work_struct *work)

return the worker pool ID a given work is associated with

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
the work item of interest

Return

The worker_pool ID work was last associated with. WORK_OFFQ_POOL_NONE if none.

void wake_up_worker(struct worker_pool *pool)

wake up an idle worker

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
worker pool to wake worker from

Description

Wake up the first idle worker of pool.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

void wq_worker_running(struct task_struct *task)

a worker is running again

Parameters

struct task_struct *task
task waking up

Description

This function is called when a worker returns from schedule()

void wq_worker_sleeping(struct task_struct *task)

a worker is going to sleep

Parameters

struct task_struct *task
task going to sleep

Description

This function is called from schedule() when a busy worker is going to sleep. Preemption needs to be disabled to protect ->sleeping assignment.

work_func_t wq_worker_last_func(struct task_struct *task)

retrieve worker’s last work function

Parameters

struct task_struct *task
Task to retrieve last work function of.

Description

Determine the last function a worker executed. This is called from the scheduler to get a worker’s last known identity.

This function is called during schedule() when a kworker is going to sleep. It’s used by psi to identify aggregation workers during dequeuing, to allow periodic aggregation to shut-off when that worker is the last task in the system or cgroup to go to sleep.

As this function doesn’t involve any workqueue-related locking, it only returns stable values when called from inside the scheduler’s queuing and dequeuing paths, when task, which must be a kworker, is guaranteed to not be processing any works.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(rq->lock)

Return

The last work function current executed as a worker, NULL if it hasn’t executed any work yet.

void worker_set_flags(struct worker *worker, unsigned int flags)

set worker flags and adjust nr_running accordingly

Parameters

struct worker *worker
self
unsigned int flags
flags to set

Description

Set flags in worker->flags and adjust nr_running accordingly.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock)

void worker_clr_flags(struct worker *worker, unsigned int flags)

clear worker flags and adjust nr_running accordingly

Parameters

struct worker *worker
self
unsigned int flags
flags to clear

Description

Clear flags in worker->flags and adjust nr_running accordingly.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock)

struct worker * find_worker_executing_work(struct worker_pool *pool, struct work_struct *work)

find worker which is executing a work

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
pool of interest
struct work_struct *work
work to find worker for

Description

Find a worker which is executing work on pool by searching pool->busy_hash which is keyed by the address of work. For a worker to match, its current execution should match the address of work and its work function. This is to avoid unwanted dependency between unrelated work executions through a work item being recycled while still being executed.

This is a bit tricky. A work item may be freed once its execution starts and nothing prevents the freed area from being recycled for another work item. If the same work item address ends up being reused before the original execution finishes, workqueue will identify the recycled work item as currently executing and make it wait until the current execution finishes, introducing an unwanted dependency.

This function checks the work item address and work function to avoid false positives. Note that this isn’t complete as one may construct a work function which can introduce dependency onto itself through a recycled work item. Well, if somebody wants to shoot oneself in the foot that badly, there’s only so much we can do, and if such deadlock actually occurs, it should be easy to locate the culprit work function.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

Return

Pointer to worker which is executing work if found, NULL otherwise.

void move_linked_works(struct work_struct *work, struct list_head *head, struct work_struct **nextp)

move linked works to a list

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
start of series of works to be scheduled
struct list_head *head
target list to append work to
struct work_struct **nextp
out parameter for nested worklist walking

Description

Schedule linked works starting from work to head. Work series to be scheduled starts at work and includes any consecutive work with WORK_STRUCT_LINKED set in its predecessor.

If nextp is not NULL, it’s updated to point to the next work of the last scheduled work. This allows move_linked_works() to be nested inside outer list_for_each_entry_safe().

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

void get_pwq(struct pool_workqueue *pwq)

get an extra reference on the specified pool_workqueue

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pool_workqueue to get

Description

Obtain an extra reference on pwq. The caller should guarantee that pwq has positive refcnt and be holding the matching pool->lock.

void put_pwq(struct pool_workqueue *pwq)

put a pool_workqueue reference

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pool_workqueue to put

Description

Drop a reference of pwq. If its refcnt reaches zero, schedule its destruction. The caller should be holding the matching pool->lock.

void put_pwq_unlocked(struct pool_workqueue *pwq)

put_pwq() with surrounding pool lock/unlock

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pool_workqueue to put (can be NULL)

Description

put_pwq() with locking. This function also allows NULL pwq.

void pwq_dec_nr_in_flight(struct pool_workqueue *pwq, unsigned long work_data)

decrement pwq’s nr_in_flight

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pwq of interest
unsigned long work_data
work_data of work which left the queue

Description

A work either has completed or is removed from pending queue, decrement nr_in_flight of its pwq and handle workqueue flushing.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

int try_to_grab_pending(struct work_struct *work, bool is_dwork, unsigned long *flags)

steal work item from worklist and disable irq

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
work item to steal
bool is_dwork
work is a delayed_work
unsigned long *flags
place to store irq state

Description

Try to grab PENDING bit of work. This function can handle work in any stable state - idle, on timer or on worklist.

On successful return, >= 0, irq is disabled and the caller is responsible for releasing it using local_irq_restore(*flags).

This function is safe to call from any context including IRQ handler.

Return

1 if work was pending and we successfully stole PENDING
0 if work was idle and we claimed PENDING
-EAGAIN if PENDING couldn’t be grabbed at the moment, safe to busy-retry
-ENOENT if someone else is canceling work, this state may persist for arbitrarily long

Note

On >= 0 return, the caller owns work’s PENDING bit. To avoid getting interrupted while holding PENDING and work off queue, irq must be disabled on entry. This, combined with delayed_work->timer being irqsafe, ensures that we return -EAGAIN for finite short period of time.

void insert_work(struct pool_workqueue *pwq, struct work_struct *work, struct list_head *head, unsigned int extra_flags)

insert a work into a pool

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pwq work belongs to
struct work_struct *work
work to insert
struct list_head *head
insertion point
unsigned int extra_flags
extra WORK_STRUCT_* flags to set

Description

Insert work which belongs to pwq after head. extra_flags is or’d to work_struct flags.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

bool queue_work_on(int cpu, struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct work_struct *work)

queue work on specific cpu

Parameters

int cpu
CPU number to execute work on
struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct work_struct *work
work to queue

Description

We queue the work to a specific CPU, the caller must ensure it can’t go away.

Return

false if work was already on a queue, true otherwise.

int workqueue_select_cpu_near(int node)

Select a CPU based on NUMA node

Parameters

int node
NUMA node ID that we want to select a CPU from

Description

This function will attempt to find a “random” cpu available on a given node. If there are no CPUs available on the given node it will return WORK_CPU_UNBOUND indicating that we should just schedule to any available CPU if we need to schedule this work.

bool queue_work_node(int node, struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct work_struct *work)

queue work on a “random” cpu for a given NUMA node

Parameters

int node
NUMA node that we are targeting the work for
struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct work_struct *work
work to queue

Description

We queue the work to a “random” CPU within a given NUMA node. The basic idea here is to provide a way to somehow associate work with a given NUMA node.

This function will only make a best effort attempt at getting this onto the right NUMA node. If no node is requested or the requested node is offline then we just fall back to standard queue_work behavior.

Currently the “random” CPU ends up being the first available CPU in the intersection of cpu_online_mask and the cpumask of the node, unless we are running on the node. In that case we just use the current CPU.

Return

false if work was already on a queue, true otherwise.

bool queue_delayed_work_on(int cpu, struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

queue work on specific CPU after delay

Parameters

int cpu
CPU number to execute work on
struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct delayed_work *dwork
work to queue
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait before queueing

Return

false if work was already on a queue, true otherwise. If delay is zero and dwork is idle, it will be scheduled for immediate execution.

bool mod_delayed_work_on(int cpu, struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct delayed_work *dwork, unsigned long delay)

modify delay of or queue a delayed work on specific CPU

Parameters

int cpu
CPU number to execute work on
struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct delayed_work *dwork
work to queue
unsigned long delay
number of jiffies to wait before queueing

Description

If dwork is idle, equivalent to queue_delayed_work_on(); otherwise, modify dwork’s timer so that it expires after delay. If delay is zero, work is guaranteed to be scheduled immediately regardless of its current state.

This function is safe to call from any context including IRQ handler. See try_to_grab_pending() for details.

Return

false if dwork was idle and queued, true if dwork was pending and its timer was modified.

bool queue_rcu_work(struct workqueue_struct *wq, struct rcu_work *rwork)

queue work after a RCU grace period

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to use
struct rcu_work *rwork
work to queue

Return

false if rwork was already pending, true otherwise. Note that a full RCU grace period is guaranteed only after a true return. While rwork is guaranteed to be executed after a false return, the execution may happen before a full RCU grace period has passed.

void worker_enter_idle(struct worker *worker)

enter idle state

Parameters

struct worker *worker
worker which is entering idle state

Description

worker is entering idle state. Update stats and idle timer if necessary.

LOCKING: raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

void worker_leave_idle(struct worker *worker)

leave idle state

Parameters

struct worker *worker
worker which is leaving idle state

Description

worker is leaving idle state. Update stats.

LOCKING: raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

void worker_attach_to_pool(struct worker *worker, struct worker_pool *pool)

attach a worker to a pool

Parameters

struct worker *worker
worker to be attached
struct worker_pool *pool
the target pool

Description

Attach worker to pool. Once attached, the WORKER_UNBOUND flag and cpu-binding of worker are kept coordinated with the pool across cpu-[un]hotplugs.

void worker_detach_from_pool(struct worker *worker)

detach a worker from its pool

Parameters

struct worker *worker
worker which is attached to its pool

Description

Undo the attaching which had been done in worker_attach_to_pool(). The caller worker shouldn’t access to the pool after detached except it has other reference to the pool.

struct worker * create_worker(struct worker_pool *pool)

create a new workqueue worker

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
pool the new worker will belong to

Description

Create and start a new worker which is attached to pool.

Context

Might sleep. Does GFP_KERNEL allocations.

Return

Pointer to the newly created worker.

void destroy_worker(struct worker *worker)

destroy a workqueue worker

Parameters

struct worker *worker
worker to be destroyed

Description

Destroy worker and adjust pool stats accordingly. The worker should be idle.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

void maybe_create_worker(struct worker_pool *pool)

create a new worker if necessary

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
pool to create a new worker for

Description

Create a new worker for pool if necessary. pool is guaranteed to have at least one idle worker on return from this function. If creating a new worker takes longer than MAYDAY_INTERVAL, mayday is sent to all rescuers with works scheduled on pool to resolve possible allocation deadlock.

On return, need_to_create_worker() is guaranteed to be false and may_start_working() true.

LOCKING: raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock) which may be released and regrabbed multiple times. Does GFP_KERNEL allocations. Called only from manager.

bool manage_workers(struct worker *worker)

manage worker pool

Parameters

struct worker *worker
self

Description

Assume the manager role and manage the worker pool worker belongs to. At any given time, there can be only zero or one manager per pool. The exclusion is handled automatically by this function.

The caller can safely start processing works on false return. On true return, it’s guaranteed that need_to_create_worker() is false and may_start_working() is true.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock) which may be released and regrabbed multiple times. Does GFP_KERNEL allocations.

Return

false if the pool doesn’t need management and the caller can safely start processing works, true if management function was performed and the conditions that the caller verified before calling the function may no longer be true.

void process_one_work(struct worker *worker, struct work_struct *work)

process single work

Parameters

struct worker *worker
self
struct work_struct *work
work to process

Description

Process work. This function contains all the logics necessary to process a single work including synchronization against and interaction with other workers on the same cpu, queueing and flushing. As long as context requirement is met, any worker can call this function to process a work.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock) which is released and regrabbed.

void process_scheduled_works(struct worker *worker)

process scheduled works

Parameters

struct worker *worker
self

Description

Process all scheduled works. Please note that the scheduled list may change while processing a work, so this function repeatedly fetches a work from the top and executes it.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock) which may be released and regrabbed multiple times.

int worker_thread(void *__worker)

the worker thread function

Parameters

void *__worker
self

Description

The worker thread function. All workers belong to a worker_pool - either a per-cpu one or dynamic unbound one. These workers process all work items regardless of their specific target workqueue. The only exception is work items which belong to workqueues with a rescuer which will be explained in rescuer_thread().

Return

0

int rescuer_thread(void *__rescuer)

the rescuer thread function

Parameters

void *__rescuer
self

Description

Workqueue rescuer thread function. There’s one rescuer for each workqueue which has WQ_MEM_RECLAIM set.

Regular work processing on a pool may block trying to create a new worker which uses GFP_KERNEL allocation which has slight chance of developing into deadlock if some works currently on the same queue need to be processed to satisfy the GFP_KERNEL allocation. This is the problem rescuer solves.

When such condition is possible, the pool summons rescuers of all workqueues which have works queued on the pool and let them process those works so that forward progress can be guaranteed.

This should happen rarely.

Return

0

void check_flush_dependency(struct workqueue_struct *target_wq, struct work_struct *target_work)

check for flush dependency sanity

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *target_wq
workqueue being flushed
struct work_struct *target_work
work item being flushed (NULL for workqueue flushes)

Description

current is trying to flush the whole target_wq or target_work on it. If target_wq doesn’t have WQ_MEM_RECLAIM, verify that current is not reclaiming memory or running on a workqueue which doesn’t have WQ_MEM_RECLAIM as that can break forward-progress guarantee leading to a deadlock.

void insert_wq_barrier(struct pool_workqueue *pwq, struct wq_barrier *barr, struct work_struct *target, struct worker *worker)

insert a barrier work

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
pwq to insert barrier into
struct wq_barrier *barr
wq_barrier to insert
struct work_struct *target
target work to attach barr to
struct worker *worker
worker currently executing target, NULL if target is not executing

Description

barr is linked to target such that barr is completed only after target finishes execution. Please note that the ordering guarantee is observed only with respect to target and on the local cpu.

Currently, a queued barrier can’t be canceled. This is because try_to_grab_pending() can’t determine whether the work to be grabbed is at the head of the queue and thus can’t clear LINKED flag of the previous work while there must be a valid next work after a work with LINKED flag set.

Note that when worker is non-NULL, target may be modified underneath us, so we can’t reliably determine pwq from target.

Context

raw_spin_lock_irq(pool->lock).

bool flush_workqueue_prep_pwqs(struct workqueue_struct *wq, int flush_color, int work_color)

prepare pwqs for workqueue flushing

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue being flushed
int flush_color
new flush color, < 0 for no-op
int work_color
new work color, < 0 for no-op

Description

Prepare pwqs for workqueue flushing.

If flush_color is non-negative, flush_color on all pwqs should be -1. If no pwq has in-flight commands at the specified color, all pwq->flush_color’s stay at -1 and false is returned. If any pwq has in flight commands, its pwq->flush_color is set to flush_color, wq->nr_pwqs_to_flush is updated accordingly, pwq wakeup logic is armed and true is returned.

The caller should have initialized wq->first_flusher prior to calling this function with non-negative flush_color. If flush_color is negative, no flush color update is done and false is returned.

If work_color is non-negative, all pwqs should have the same work_color which is previous to work_color and all will be advanced to work_color.

Context

mutex_lock(wq->mutex).

Return

true if flush_color >= 0 and there’s something to flush. false otherwise.

void flush_workqueue(struct workqueue_struct *wq)

ensure that any scheduled work has run to completion.

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to flush

Description

This function sleeps until all work items which were queued on entry have finished execution, but it is not livelocked by new incoming ones.

void drain_workqueue(struct workqueue_struct *wq)

drain a workqueue

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
workqueue to drain

Description

Wait until the workqueue becomes empty. While draining is in progress, only chain queueing is allowed. IOW, only currently pending or running work items on wq can queue further work items on it. wq is flushed repeatedly until it becomes empty. The number of flushing is determined by the depth of chaining and should be relatively short. Whine if it takes too long.

bool flush_work(struct work_struct *work)

wait for a work to finish executing the last queueing instance

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
the work to flush

Description

Wait until work has finished execution. work is guaranteed to be idle on return if it hasn’t been requeued since flush started.

Return

true if flush_work() waited for the work to finish execution, false if it was already idle.

bool cancel_work_sync(struct work_struct *work)

cancel a work and wait for it to finish

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
the work to cancel

Description

Cancel work and wait for its execution to finish. This function can be used even if the work re-queues itself or migrates to another workqueue. On return from this function, work is guaranteed to be not pending or executing on any CPU.

cancel_work_sync(delayed_work->work) must not be used for delayed_work’s. Use cancel_delayed_work_sync() instead.

The caller must ensure that the workqueue on which work was last queued can’t be destroyed before this function returns.

Return

true if work was pending, false otherwise.

bool flush_delayed_work(struct delayed_work *dwork)

wait for a dwork to finish executing the last queueing

Parameters

struct delayed_work *dwork
the delayed work to flush

Description

Delayed timer is cancelled and the pending work is queued for immediate execution. Like flush_work(), this function only considers the last queueing instance of dwork.

Return

true if flush_work() waited for the work to finish execution, false if it was already idle.

bool flush_rcu_work(struct rcu_work *rwork)

wait for a rwork to finish executing the last queueing

Parameters

struct rcu_work *rwork
the rcu work to flush

Return

true if flush_rcu_work() waited for the work to finish execution, false if it was already idle.

bool cancel_delayed_work(struct delayed_work *dwork)

cancel a delayed work

Parameters

struct delayed_work *dwork
delayed_work to cancel

Description

Kill off a pending delayed_work.

This function is safe to call from any context including IRQ handler.

Return

true if dwork was pending and canceled; false if it wasn’t pending.

Note

The work callback function may still be running on return, unless it returns true and the work doesn’t re-arm itself. Explicitly flush or use cancel_delayed_work_sync() to wait on it.

bool cancel_delayed_work_sync(struct delayed_work *dwork)

cancel a delayed work and wait for it to finish

Parameters

struct delayed_work *dwork
the delayed work cancel

Description

This is cancel_work_sync() for delayed works.

Return

true if dwork was pending, false otherwise.

int schedule_on_each_cpu(work_func_t func)

execute a function synchronously on each online CPU

Parameters

work_func_t func
the function to call

Description

schedule_on_each_cpu() executes func on each online CPU using the system workqueue and blocks until all CPUs have completed. schedule_on_each_cpu() is very slow.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.

int execute_in_process_context(work_func_t fn, struct execute_work *ew)

reliably execute the routine with user context

Parameters

work_func_t fn
the function to execute
struct execute_work *ew
guaranteed storage for the execute work structure (must be available when the work executes)

Description

Executes the function immediately if process context is available, otherwise schedules the function for delayed execution.

Return

0 - function was executed
1 - function was scheduled for execution
void free_workqueue_attrs(struct workqueue_attrs *attrs)

free a workqueue_attrs

Parameters

struct workqueue_attrs *attrs
workqueue_attrs to free

Description

Undo alloc_workqueue_attrs().

struct workqueue_attrs * alloc_workqueue_attrs(void)

allocate a workqueue_attrs

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Allocate a new workqueue_attrs, initialize with default settings and return it.

Return

The allocated new workqueue_attr on success. NULL on failure.

int init_worker_pool(struct worker_pool *pool)

initialize a newly zalloc’d worker_pool

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
worker_pool to initialize

Description

Initialize a newly zalloc’d pool. It also allocates pool->attrs.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure. Even on failure, all fields inside pool proper are initialized and put_unbound_pool() can be called on pool safely to release it.

void put_unbound_pool(struct worker_pool *pool)

put a worker_pool

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
worker_pool to put

Description

Put pool. If its refcnt reaches zero, it gets destroyed in RCU safe manner. get_unbound_pool() calls this function on its failure path and this function should be able to release pools which went through, successfully or not, init_worker_pool().

Should be called with wq_pool_mutex held.

struct worker_pool * get_unbound_pool(const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs)

get a worker_pool with the specified attributes

Parameters

const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs
the attributes of the worker_pool to get

Description

Obtain a worker_pool which has the same attributes as attrs, bump the reference count and return it. If there already is a matching worker_pool, it will be used; otherwise, this function attempts to create a new one.

Should be called with wq_pool_mutex held.

Return

On success, a worker_pool with the same attributes as attrs. On failure, NULL.

void pwq_adjust_max_active(struct pool_workqueue *pwq)

update a pwq’s max_active to the current setting

Parameters

struct pool_workqueue *pwq
target pool_workqueue

Description

If pwq isn’t freezing, set pwq->max_active to the associated workqueue’s saved_max_active and activate inactive work items accordingly. If pwq is freezing, clear pwq->max_active to zero.

bool wq_calc_node_cpumask(const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs, int node, int cpu_going_down, cpumask_t *cpumask)

calculate a wq_attrs’ cpumask for the specified node

Parameters

const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs
the wq_attrs of the default pwq of the target workqueue
int node
the target NUMA node
int cpu_going_down
if >= 0, the CPU to consider as offline
cpumask_t *cpumask
outarg, the resulting cpumask

Description

Calculate the cpumask a workqueue with attrs should use on node. If cpu_going_down is >= 0, that cpu is considered offline during calculation. The result is stored in cpumask.

If NUMA affinity is not enabled, attrs->cpumask is always used. If enabled and node has online CPUs requested by attrs, the returned cpumask is the intersection of the possible CPUs of node and attrs->cpumask.

The caller is responsible for ensuring that the cpumask of node stays stable.

Return

true if the resulting cpumask is different from attrs->cpumask, false if equal.

int apply_workqueue_attrs(struct workqueue_struct *wq, const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs)

apply new workqueue_attrs to an unbound workqueue

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
the target workqueue
const struct workqueue_attrs *attrs
the workqueue_attrs to apply, allocated with alloc_workqueue_attrs()

Description

Apply attrs to an unbound workqueue wq. Unless disabled, on NUMA machines, this function maps a separate pwq to each NUMA node with possibles CPUs in attrs->cpumask so that work items are affine to the NUMA node it was issued on. Older pwqs are released as in-flight work items finish. Note that a work item which repeatedly requeues itself back-to-back will stay on its current pwq.

Performs GFP_KERNEL allocations.

Assumes caller has CPU hotplug read exclusion, i.e. cpus_read_lock().

Return

0 on success and -errno on failure.

void wq_update_unbound_numa(struct workqueue_struct *wq, int cpu, bool online)

update NUMA affinity of a wq for CPU hot[un]plug

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
the target workqueue
int cpu
the CPU coming up or going down
bool online
whether cpu is coming up or going down

Description

This function is to be called from CPU_DOWN_PREPARE, CPU_ONLINE and CPU_DOWN_FAILED. cpu is being hot[un]plugged, update NUMA affinity of wq accordingly.

If NUMA affinity can’t be adjusted due to memory allocation failure, it falls back to wq->dfl_pwq which may not be optimal but is always correct.

Note that when the last allowed CPU of a NUMA node goes offline for a workqueue with a cpumask spanning multiple nodes, the workers which were already executing the work items for the workqueue will lose their CPU affinity and may execute on any CPU. This is similar to how per-cpu workqueues behave on CPU_DOWN. If a workqueue user wants strict affinity, it’s the user’s responsibility to flush the work item from CPU_DOWN_PREPARE.

void destroy_workqueue(struct workqueue_struct *wq)

safely terminate a workqueue

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
target workqueue

Description

Safely destroy a workqueue. All work currently pending will be done first.

void workqueue_set_max_active(struct workqueue_struct *wq, int max_active)

adjust max_active of a workqueue

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
target workqueue
int max_active
new max_active value.

Description

Set max_active of wq to max_active.

Context

Don’t call from IRQ context.

struct work_struct * current_work(void)

retrieve current task’s work struct

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Determine if current task is a workqueue worker and what it’s working on. Useful to find out the context that the current task is running in.

Return

work struct if current task is a workqueue worker, NULL otherwise.

bool current_is_workqueue_rescuer(void)

is current workqueue rescuer?

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Determine whether current is a workqueue rescuer. Can be used from work functions to determine whether it’s being run off the rescuer task.

Return

true if current is a workqueue rescuer. false otherwise.

bool workqueue_congested(int cpu, struct workqueue_struct *wq)

test whether a workqueue is congested

Parameters

int cpu
CPU in question
struct workqueue_struct *wq
target workqueue

Description

Test whether wq’s cpu workqueue for cpu is congested. There is no synchronization around this function and the test result is unreliable and only useful as advisory hints or for debugging.

If cpu is WORK_CPU_UNBOUND, the test is performed on the local CPU. Note that both per-cpu and unbound workqueues may be associated with multiple pool_workqueues which have separate congested states. A workqueue being congested on one CPU doesn’t mean the workqueue is also contested on other CPUs / NUMA nodes.

Return

true if congested, false otherwise.

unsigned int work_busy(struct work_struct *work)

test whether a work is currently pending or running

Parameters

struct work_struct *work
the work to be tested

Description

Test whether work is currently pending or running. There is no synchronization around this function and the test result is unreliable and only useful as advisory hints or for debugging.

Return

OR’d bitmask of WORK_BUSY_* bits.

void set_worker_desc(const char *fmt, ...)

set description for the current work item

Parameters

const char *fmt
printf-style format string
...
arguments for the format string

Description

This function can be called by a running work function to describe what the work item is about. If the worker task gets dumped, this information will be printed out together to help debugging. The description can be at most WORKER_DESC_LEN including the trailing ‘0’.

void print_worker_info(const char *log_lvl, struct task_struct *task)

print out worker information and description

Parameters

const char *log_lvl
the log level to use when printing
struct task_struct *task
target task

Description

If task is a worker and currently executing a work item, print out the name of the workqueue being serviced and worker description set with set_worker_desc() by the currently executing work item.

This function can be safely called on any task as long as the task_struct itself is accessible. While safe, this function isn’t synchronized and may print out mixups or garbages of limited length.

void show_workqueue_state(void)

dump workqueue state

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Called from a sysrq handler or try_to_freeze_tasks() and prints out all busy workqueues and pools.

void rebind_workers(struct worker_pool *pool)

rebind all workers of a pool to the associated CPU

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
pool of interest

Description

pool->cpu is coming online. Rebind all workers to the CPU.

void restore_unbound_workers_cpumask(struct worker_pool *pool, int cpu)

restore cpumask of unbound workers

Parameters

struct worker_pool *pool
unbound pool of interest
int cpu
the CPU which is coming up

Description

An unbound pool may end up with a cpumask which doesn’t have any online CPUs. When a worker of such pool get scheduled, the scheduler resets its cpus_allowed. If cpu is in pool’s cpumask which didn’t have any online CPU before, cpus_allowed of all its workers should be restored.

long work_on_cpu(int cpu, long (*fn)(void *), void *arg)

run a function in thread context on a particular cpu

Parameters

int cpu
the cpu to run on
long (*fn)(void *)
the function to run
void *arg
the function arg

Description

It is up to the caller to ensure that the cpu doesn’t go offline. The caller must not hold any locks which would prevent fn from completing.

Return

The value fn returns.

long work_on_cpu_safe(int cpu, long (*fn)(void *), void *arg)

run a function in thread context on a particular cpu

Parameters

int cpu
the cpu to run on
long (*fn)(void *)
the function to run
void *arg
the function argument

Description

Disables CPU hotplug and calls work_on_cpu(). The caller must not hold any locks which would prevent fn from completing.

Return

The value fn returns.

void freeze_workqueues_begin(void)

begin freezing workqueues

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Start freezing workqueues. After this function returns, all freezable workqueues will queue new works to their inactive_works list instead of pool->worklist.

Context

Grabs and releases wq_pool_mutex, wq->mutex and pool->lock’s.

bool freeze_workqueues_busy(void)

are freezable workqueues still busy?

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Check whether freezing is complete. This function must be called between freeze_workqueues_begin() and thaw_workqueues().

Context

Grabs and releases wq_pool_mutex.

Return

true if some freezable workqueues are still busy. false if freezing is complete.

void thaw_workqueues(void)

thaw workqueues

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

Thaw workqueues. Normal queueing is restored and all collected frozen works are transferred to their respective pool worklists.

Context

Grabs and releases wq_pool_mutex, wq->mutex and pool->lock’s.

int workqueue_set_unbound_cpumask(cpumask_var_t cpumask)

Set the low-level unbound cpumask

Parameters

cpumask_var_t cpumask

the cpumask to set

The low-level workqueues cpumask is a global cpumask that limits the affinity of all unbound workqueues. This function check the cpumask and apply it to all unbound workqueues and updates all pwqs of them.

Return

0 - Success
-EINVAL - Invalid cpumask -ENOMEM - Failed to allocate memory for attrs or pwqs.
int workqueue_sysfs_register(struct workqueue_struct *wq)

make a workqueue visible in sysfs

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
the workqueue to register

Description

Expose wq in sysfs under /sys/bus/workqueue/devices. alloc_workqueue*() automatically calls this function if WQ_SYSFS is set which is the preferred method.

Workqueue user should use this function directly iff it wants to apply workqueue_attrs before making the workqueue visible in sysfs; otherwise, apply_workqueue_attrs() may race against userland updating the attributes.

Return

0 on success, -errno on failure.

void workqueue_sysfs_unregister(struct workqueue_struct *wq)

undo workqueue_sysfs_register()

Parameters

struct workqueue_struct *wq
the workqueue to unregister

Description

If wq is registered to sysfs by workqueue_sysfs_register(), unregister.

void workqueue_init_early(void)

early init for workqueue subsystem

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

This is the first half of two-staged workqueue subsystem initialization and invoked as soon as the bare basics - memory allocation, cpumasks and idr are up. It sets up all the data structures and system workqueues and allows early boot code to create workqueues and queue/cancel work items. Actual work item execution starts only after kthreads can be created and scheduled right before early initcalls.

void workqueue_init(void)

bring workqueue subsystem fully online

Parameters

void
no arguments

Description

This is the latter half of two-staged workqueue subsystem initialization and invoked as soon as kthreads can be created and scheduled. Workqueues have been created and work items queued on them, but there are no kworkers executing the work items yet. Populate the worker pools with the initial workers and enable future kworker creations.