2.24. Tuner functions and data structures

enum tuner_mode

Mode of the tuner

Constants

T_RADIO
Tuner core will work in radio mode
T_ANALOG_TV
Tuner core will work in analog TV mode

Description

Older boards only had a single tuner device, but some devices have a separate tuner for radio. In any case, the tuner-core needs to know if the tuner chip(s) will be used in radio mode or analog TV mode, as, on radio mode, frequencies are specified on a different range than on TV mode. This enum is used by the tuner core in order to work with the proper tuner range and eventually use a different tuner chip while in radio mode.

struct tuner_setup

setup the tuner chipsets

Definition

struct tuner_setup {
  unsigned short  addr;
  unsigned int    type;
  unsigned int    mode_mask;
  void *config;
  int (*tuner_callback)(void *dev, int component, int cmd, int arg);
};

Members

addr
I2C address used to control the tuner device/chipset
type
Type of the tuner, as defined at the TUNER_* macros. Each different tuner model should have an unique identifier.
mode_mask
Mask with the allowed tuner modes: V4L2_TUNER_RADIO, V4L2_TUNER_ANALOG_TV and/or V4L2_TUNER_DIGITAL_TV, describing if the tuner should be used to support Radio, analog TV and/or digital TV.
config
Used to send tuner-specific configuration for complex tuners that require extra parameters to be set. Only a very few tuners require it and its usage on newer tuners should be avoided.
tuner_callback
Some tuners require to call back the bridge driver, in order to do some tasks like rising a GPIO at the bridge chipset, in order to do things like resetting the device.

Description

Older boards only had a single tuner device. Nowadays multiple tuner devices may be present on a single board. Using TUNER_SET_TYPE_ADDR to pass the tuner_setup structure it is possible to setup each tuner device in turn.

Since multiple devices may be present it is no longer sufficient to send a command to a single i2c device. Instead you should broadcast the command to all i2c devices.

By setting the mode_mask correctly you can select which commands are accepted by a specific tuner device. For example, set mode_mask to T_RADIO if the device is a radio-only tuner. That specific tuner will only accept commands when the tuner is in radio mode and ignore them when the tuner is set to TV mode.

enum param_type

type of the tuner pameters

Constants

TUNER_PARAM_TYPE_RADIO
Tuner params are for FM and/or AM radio
TUNER_PARAM_TYPE_PAL
Tuner params are for PAL color TV standard
TUNER_PARAM_TYPE_SECAM
Tuner params are for SECAM color TV standard
TUNER_PARAM_TYPE_NTSC
Tuner params are for NTSC color TV standard
TUNER_PARAM_TYPE_DIGITAL
Tuner params are for digital TV
struct tuner_range

define the frequencies supported by the tuner

Definition

struct tuner_range {
  unsigned short limit;
  unsigned char config;
  unsigned char cb;
};

Members

limit
Max frequency supported by that range, in 62.5 kHz (TV) or 62.5 Hz (Radio), as defined by V4L2_TUNER_CAP_LOW.
config
Value of the band switch byte (BB) to setup this mode.
cb
Value of the CB byte to setup this mode.

Description

Please notice that digital tuners like xc3028/xc4000/xc5000 don’t use those ranges, as they’re defined inside the driver. This is used by analog tuners that are compatible with the “Philips way” to setup the tuners. On those devices, the tuner set is done via 4 bytes:

  1. divider byte1 (DB1)
  2. divider byte 2 (DB2)
  3. Control byte (CB)
  4. band switch byte (BB)

Some tuners also have an additional optional Auxiliary byte (AB).

struct tuner_params

Parameters to be used to setup the tuner. Those are used by drivers/media/tuners/tuner-types.c in order to specify the tuner properties. Most of the parameters are for tuners based on tda9887 IF-PLL multi-standard analog TV/Radio demodulator, with is very common on legacy analog tuners.

Definition

struct tuner_params {
  enum param_type type;
  unsigned int cb_first_if_lower_freq:1;
  unsigned int has_tda9887:1;
  unsigned int port1_fm_high_sensitivity:1;
  unsigned int port2_fm_high_sensitivity:1;
  unsigned int fm_gain_normal:1;
  unsigned int intercarrier_mode:1;
  unsigned int port1_active:1;
  unsigned int port2_active:1;
  unsigned int port1_invert_for_secam_lc:1;
  unsigned int port2_invert_for_secam_lc:1;
  unsigned int port1_set_for_fm_mono:1;
  unsigned int default_pll_gating_18:1;
  unsigned int radio_if:2;
  signed int default_top_low:5;
  signed int default_top_mid:5;
  signed int default_top_high:5;
  signed int default_top_secam_low:5;
  signed int default_top_secam_mid:5;
  signed int default_top_secam_high:5;
  u16 iffreq;
  unsigned int count;
  struct tuner_range *ranges;
};

Members

type
Type of the tuner parameters, as defined at enum param_type. If the tuner supports multiple standards, an array should be used, with one row per different standard.
cb_first_if_lower_freq
Many Philips-based tuners have a comment in their datasheet like “For channel selection involving band switching, and to ensure smooth tuning to the desired channel without causing unnecessary charge pump action, it is recommended to consider the difference between wanted channel frequency and the current channel frequency. Unnecessary charge pump action will result in very low tuning voltage which may drive the oscillator to extreme conditions”. Set cb_first_if_lower_freq to 1, if this check is required for this tuner. I tested this for PAL by first setting the TV frequency to 203 MHz and then switching to 96.6 MHz FM radio. The result was static unless the control byte was sent first.
has_tda9887
Set to 1 if this tuner uses a tda9887
port1_fm_high_sensitivity
Many Philips tuners use tda9887 PORT1 to select the FM radio sensitivity. If this setting is 1, then set PORT1 to 1 to get proper FM reception.
port2_fm_high_sensitivity
Some Philips tuners use tda9887 PORT2 to select the FM radio sensitivity. If this setting is 1, then set PORT2 to 1 to get proper FM reception.
fm_gain_normal
Some Philips tuners use tda9887 cGainNormal to select the FM radio sensitivity. If this setting is 1, e register will use cGainNormal instead of cGainLow.
intercarrier_mode
Most tuners with a tda9887 use QSS mode. Some (cheaper) tuners use Intercarrier mode. If this setting is 1, then the tuner needs to be set to intercarrier mode.
port1_active
This setting sets the default value for PORT1. 0 means inactive, 1 means active. Note: the actual bit value written to the tda9887 is inverted. So a 0 here means a 1 in the B6 bit.
port2_active
This setting sets the default value for PORT2. 0 means inactive, 1 means active. Note: the actual bit value written to the tda9887 is inverted. So a 0 here means a 1 in the B7 bit.
port1_invert_for_secam_lc
Sometimes PORT1 is inverted when the SECAM-L’ standard is selected. Set this bit to 1 if this is needed.
port2_invert_for_secam_lc
Sometimes PORT2 is inverted when the SECAM-L’ standard is selected. Set this bit to 1 if this is needed.
port1_set_for_fm_mono
Some cards require PORT1 to be 1 for mono Radio FM and 0 for stereo.
default_pll_gating_18
Select 18% (or according to datasheet 0%) L standard PLL gating, vs the driver default of 36%.
radio_if
IF to use in radio mode. Tuners with a separate radio IF filter seem to use 10.7, while those without use 33.3 for PAL/SECAM tuners and 41.3 for NTSC tuners. 0 = 10.7, 1 = 33.3, 2 = 41.3
default_top_low
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for the low band. Default is 0. Range: -16:+15
default_top_mid
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for the mid band. Default is 0. Range: -16:+15
default_top_high
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for the high band. Default is 0. Range: -16:+15
default_top_secam_low
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for SECAM-L/L’ for the low band. Default is 0. Several tuners require a different TOP value for the SECAM-L/L’ standards. Range: -16:+15
default_top_secam_mid
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for SECAM-L/L’ for the mid band. Default is 0. Several tuners require a different TOP value for the SECAM-L/L’ standards. Range: -16:+15
default_top_secam_high
Default tda9887 TOP value in dB for SECAM-L/L’ for the high band. Default is 0. Several tuners require a different TOP value for the SECAM-L/L’ standards. Range: -16:+15
iffreq
Intermediate frequency (IF) used by the tuner on digital mode.
count
Size of the ranges array.
ranges
Array with the frequency ranges supported by the tuner.
struct tunertype

describes the known tuners.

Definition

struct tunertype {
  char *name;
  unsigned int count;
  struct tuner_params *params;
  u16 min;
  u16 max;
  u32 stepsize;
  u8 *initdata;
  u8 *sleepdata;
};

Members

name
string with the tuner’s name.
count
size of struct tuner_params array.
params
pointer to struct tuner_params array.
min
minimal tuner frequency, in 62.5 kHz step. should be multiplied to 16 to convert to MHz.
max
minimal tuner frequency, in 62.5 kHz step. Should be multiplied to 16 to convert to MHz.
stepsize
frequency step, in Hz.
initdata
optional byte sequence to initialize the tuner.
sleepdata
optional byte sequence to power down the tuner.